Ethics on Sports
“It is only with the heart that one can see rightly;
what is essentially invisible to the eye”
the Fox in the Little Prince
(Kreyche, 2007, Â¶ 8).
In sports, “gray areas” regarding whether participating in a particular behavior is ethical or not ethical appear to be increasing. Diana E. Avans (2007), Vanguard University, asserts in the article, “Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport,” that even though questions about the athlete’s character have been addressed for centuries, the current noted increases in moral dilemmas in the sports’ arenas do affect athletes today. Today, along with the reported increase in “gray areas” regarding ethics, professional and business organizations also complain that in society, the lack of honesty is rampant, and that almost daily, the media publishes news about a fresh scandal. During this study’s literature review, the researcher explores a number of relevant, published sources to addresses a number of concerns relating to the impact of ethics on sports.
One current concern relating to the impact of ethics on sports includes the contention that college athletic departments reportedly often use slush funds to recruit prospective sports figures for their teams. Common practices, according to Gerald F. Kreyche (2007), American Thought Editor of USA Today and professor emeritus of philosophy at DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois, may include the hosting of wild parties for the potential recruits, “complete with alcohol, strippers, and, at times, even prostitutes” (Kreyche, Â¶ 1). In the article, “Do ethics promise too much?” Kreyche notes that prior to discussing ethics, the question needs to be answered as to why it is important for one to “be good” or have ethics. “Ethics, itself,” according to Kreyche, constitutes a “soft” discipline, that “seldom produces the kind of certitude that science offers. Antoine St. Exupery, author of the Little Prince, has his fox tell the Prince, “It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essential is invisible to the eye.” (Kreyche, 2007, Â¶ 8). In the study, “Ethics audits and corporate governance: The case of public sector sports organizations,” Michael John McNamee, Health Science, Swansea University, and Scott Fleming (2007), School of Sport, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, Wales, refer to ethics as a type of moral philosophy.
CONSIDERATIONS RELATING to ETHICS
Carolyn Wiley, Ph.D. (1995), Associate Professor at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, defines ethics in “The ABC’s of business ethics: Definitions, philosophies and implementation.” In answer to the question: “What is ethics?,” Wiley asserts: “Ethics is concerned with moral obligation, responsibility, and social justice. The word ethics comes from the Greek words “ethikos” and “ethos,” meaning custom or usage. As employed by Aristotle, the term included the idea of character and disposition (, Â¶ 1) Ethics, however, as the quote introducing this literature review, notes is “essentially invisible to the eye” (the Fox, cited in Kreyche, 2007, Â¶ 8). Consequently, according to “The Fox” and Wiley, Ethics, an invisible entity, reflects the individual’s character, as well as contemporarily perhaps, the business firm’s character, as it consists of a collection of individuals (Wiley, 1995, Â¶ 1). The individuals and/or firms, as noted in this literature review may be actively involved in sports.
Stan Lomax (2008), Lecturer in Management at the Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina. Lomax purports that ethics closely links to philosophy, the discipline related to the question of how one should live. This consideration, according to Lomax in the article, “Whatever happened to America’s ethical values?” not only concerns sports, but “remains at the heart of present-day ethical thinking in the United States” (Sources of section, Â¶ 1).
Americans are drowning in a turbulent ocean of cheating. Virtually every day the American public is battered by media revelations of misconduct by corporate executives, government officials, and athletes. Indeed, just a partial list of recent alleged indiscretions cuts across professions. We’ve learned about GE’s Jack Welch, Apple’s Steve Jobs, Citigroup’s Sandy Weill, government’s Bill Clinton and Eliot Spitzer, as well as Barry Bonds, Roger Clemens, and Bill Belichick (the Patriots’ coach of “Spygate” fame) from the world of sports, all allegedly involved in conduct that most Americans would deem “unethical.” (Lomax, 2008, Â¶ 1).
Lomax (2008) asserts that Socrates (470-399 B.C.) is generally credited with founding Western ethical thought. He believed that the ultimate object of human activity is happiness, and the necessary means to reach it, virtue. Patricia C. Kelley, Assistant Professor in the Business Administration Program at the University of Washington, Bothell and Pepe Lee Chang (2007) doctoral candidate in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Utah, assert in the article, “A typology of university ethical lapses: Types, levels of seriousness, and originating location,” Scandals ranging from NCAA violations to falsified research results have fueled criticism of America’s universities. Sports violations, research manipulation, gender discrimination, and other ethical lapses affect an entire institution as they have a spillover effect on its reputation (Cullen, Latessa, Byrne, & Holman, 1990; Gerdy, 2002). The results of these problems include declining credibility and deteriorating public trust in universities since such lapses are difficult to resolve (Kelley & Chang, 2007, Â¶ 1).
Kelley and Chang (2007) suggest that some researchers believe that these ethical lapses spring from employees putting their own needs above honesty. Others question whether universities have clearly delineated parameters around expected behavior. In addition, the many and varied pressures affecting university employees may encourage ethical lapses. However, we do not know the full range of lapses that occur, the organizational areas from which they originate, nor their impact on stakeholders (Kelley & Chang, 2007, Â¶ 3).
Kelley and Chang (2007) assert that sports programs, individuals, departments, and the organization perpetrate university ethical lapses. Some of these lapses appear to be a function of competitive market forces; that is, they are context related (Anderson et al. 1999; Fox & Braxton, 1999; Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978). For example, sports-related violations often sprang from the need to recruit and retain top athletes to enhance a university’s prestige (Cullen et al. 2001; Gerdy, 2002). Winning football bowl games can increase alumni giving and result in higher student applications. As Pfeffer and Salancik (1978) note, in a resource-constrained organization, participants that provide resources to an organization can have power over it. Therefore, many sports programs operate with little organizational oversight as long as they produce winning teams, attract potential students, and generate alumni giving (Kelley & Chang, 2007, Classification bysection, Â¶ 4).
Kelley and Chang (2007) further state that ethical decision-making in this context may be affected by factors similar to those that business ethics researchers have discovered affect managers of profit centers (Weaver, Trevino, & Cochran, 1999; Weber, 1995). Such groups must manage strong external pressures that can blind their members to the implications of their behavior as they seek to satisfy constituents’ wants. This behavior may be especially prevalent at publicly funded schools that depend on winning sports teams for prestige, alumni donations, and student applications, and it may occur despite oversight provided by college sports regulatory bodies (Kelley & Chang, 2007, Classification bysection, Â¶ 5).
Kelley and Chang (2007) conclude that researchers believe that improving ethical behavior in higher education is essential to the health of our university and community college system (Anderson & Davies, 2000; Lampe, 1997; Roworth, 2002). To achieve this goal, our organizations must understand what contributes to ethical lapses and take steps to eliminate them. We expect universities to train the next generation to become knowledgeable, principled, and responsible citizens (Alsop, 2004; Bok, 1988; Lampe, 1997). To accomplish this objective, our employees must understand and be able to interpret core ethical values. We must justify and explicate these values and enact them in our behavior. We must reward desirable behavior and reprimand and punish undesirable behavior. We must model the ethical behavior that we expect from students and other institutions. By doing so, we can respond to the pressing ethical problems of universities and live up to our responsibility, as Bok (1988) so aptly stated, to instill a sense of ethics in future generations and do the right thing (Kelley & Chang, 2007, Conclusion section, Â¶ 1).
Performance Enhancing Drugs
In the study, “Prohibition of artificial hypoxic environments in sports: Health risks rather than ethics,” Giuseppe Lippi and Gian Cesare, University of the Studies of Verona, Italy and Massimo Franchini (2007), Company Hospital worker of Verona, Italy, relate fact regarding blood doping, once known as “blood boosting” and hypoxia. Blood doping, which “consists of substances or techniques administered to improve the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood [constitutes] an emerging as a health problem worldwide” (Lippi, Guides & Franchini, Â¶ 1). The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), along with the majority of sport federations and governments, includes this unethical practice in the list of prohibited practices.
Hypoxic training, also known as altitude training, constitutes another questionable contemporary practice in regard to ethics in sports. Hypoxic training relates to “exercising in, living in or otherwise breathing oxygen reduced air for the purpose of improved athletic performance, pre-acclimatization to altitude and/or physical wellness” (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body “struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body’s respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems” (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the “spirit of sport” needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic, however, appears inconsistent with current and past practice in soirts,
Richard a. Posner (2008), Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals; Senior Lecturer, University of Chicago Law School, purports in “The case against perfection: Ethics in the age of genetic engineering,” that as it will become harder to detect, “sports doping,” where athletes use performance-enhancing drugs, will ultimately resort to genetic alteration. Posner notes that in addition to temporarily residing at an extremely high altitude in order to increase one’s red blood corpuscles, some athletes regularly use drugs, along with a number of alternative methods to enhance their athletic performance. Non-doping substitutes for drugs includes weight lifting for steroids. Grit and determination, as a choice over steroids, serve as innate for an athlete having good physical coordination. These two positive characteristics affect an athlete’s place in the majority of sports hierarchies. “Weight lifting requires grit, patience, and determination” (Â¶ 12), Posner stresses. The use of steroids does not require these positive character traits.
Kevin P. Ward a graduate student at Logan University, in Chesterfield, Missouri, and R. Scott Kretchmar (2008), Professor of sport and exercise science at the Pennsylvania State University, explain the unethical practice of stalling in the article, “An integrated approach to an undergraduate kinesiology curriculum a case study about stalling in wrestling: Specialized disciplines offer multiple perspectives on sport and exercise questions, but how can they be integrated?,” Stalling “often involves the deception of an official in an effort to win a match, it is reasonable to link a high ego perspective with a propensity to stall,” Ward and Kretchmar assert (Sport psychology section, Â¶ 3). Ward and Kretchmar note that the goal perspective, the manner whereby a person judges his/her competence and perceives success intimately relates to self-efficacy.
The achievement goal theory reflects task and ego orientations, two primary goal perspectives which impact how athletes perceive achievement and how these components guide the athlete’s actions. Athletes who possess a high ego perspective reportedly focus more on the adequacy of their ability, along with the demonstration of their superior competence compared to that of other individuals. High-ego-perspective athletes also frequently think that deception contributes to their success. As stalling regularly includes the athlete deceiving an official, with the intent to win a match, Ward and Kretchmar (2008) assert, linking a high ego perspective with a propensity to stall proves reasonable. The “mutual quest for excellence, on the other hand, proves to be a reasonable ideal for sport. When the athlete makes a point to adhere to particular rules of a game, the quest for excellence is enhanced.
Crystal Proenza (2008) reports, however, that too often in the contemporary sports field, the quest for excellence is nullified. In the article, “Honesty: Still the best policy: Accounts of cheating and stealing scandals are everywhere. Now many people are asking, “does being honest really matter?,” Proenza states that one study linked approximately 90 Major League Baseball players to the use of performance-enhancing drugs, particularly steroids. Authorities charged Barry Bonds, one of baseball’s home-run kings, for perjury and obstruction of justice after he reportedly lied to investigators about his personal steroid use (Proenza, 2008, Â¶ 1). After admitting to using steroids prior to completion, another sports figure, Marion Jones, a U.S. track star, returned five medals she had won at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia Proenza, 2008, Â¶ 2).
Robert W. Foster, PE ((2005) of Hopkinton, Massachusetts, points out in “Games and ethics,” however, concerns regarding unethical drug use in the Olympic Games is not restricted to the U.S. “At least two dozen athletes at the 2004 Games had their medals taken away after competition, or were disqualified before competing, for having failed the tests for doping or for having refused to submit to the testing (tantamount to failing) (Foster, Â¶ 2). Controversy reportedly occurred as, according to some sources, the rules regarding drug testing may not have been enforced uniformly during the 2004 Olympics.
Foster (2005) stresses that in each instance, the ethical thing to do is to completely test the sports participants or do not test any of them. An ethical consideration exists that needs to be addressed may be applied to sports or to any profession: “Is it OK to break the rules since “everybody is doing it”?… The “everybody does it” argument applies to many areas of activity it’s always easy to justify the wrong thing when it seems to be common practice” (Foster, Â¶ 7). Foster purports that the constancy of ethics needs consideration, with the determination of whether wrong constitutes wrong or that wrong may be justified at times.
In light of recurring reports of breaches of ethics in the U.S., Proenza (2008) cites Patricia Harned, president of the Ethics Resource Center, to assert the U.S. is experiencing an ethics crisis. William C. Rhoden, a sports columnist for the New York Times, albeit, asserts that people today are not necessarily more dishonest than those in previous generations. He contends, however, that the ability to catch cheaters has dramatically increased.
On the sports playing fields, McNamee and Fleming (2007), assess, unethical practices seem to flourish in the boardrooms of international business. Although wrongdoing in sports has been practiced for ages, during the past decade, due to the global community, a myriad of affirmations regarding match-fixing in cricket, charges of fraud in horse racing, and reported financial misdeeds involving the transfer of players in soccer have regularly been noted. In addition, numerous scandals concerning the Olympic bidding process have surfaced.
According to McNamee and Fleming (2007), ethics consists of the wide scope of moral agreements, obligations, norms, principles, rules and values. “In sports, McNamee and Fleming purport:
Philosophers and social scientists have often been concerned with ethical discussion of individual behaviours (sic) such as the in/defensibility of “diving” in football or what rights children have in relation to coaches. There has also been consideration of those personal characteristics that physical educators and sports coaches have attempted to develop — virtues such as courage, fairness, honesty and respect; and those which ought to be challenged and eradicated — vices such as arrogance, dishonesty, racism and sexism (McNamee & Fleming, 2007, p. 426).
Along with these particular aspects of the ethics of sports, along with corporate governance, equity has also become a prominent component of ethics, as it essentially trades on the perception of social justice. McNamee and Fleming (2007) contend that considering that justice in sporting activities and games refers to the ideal of fair play may proves helpful in understanding the concept of ethics. The observance of the rules, along with the philosophy of the specific game encounter, is partially designed to allocate an equal opportunity for each individual concerned.
Respect at the individual level, according to McNamee and Fleming (2007), constitutes one of a number of individual or personal values that develop the way that the individual experiences the organization as an employee. Other values include “honesty, integrity and personal commitment” (McNamee & Fleming, 2007, p. 431). On the social level, equity consists of a recognition of shared purposes that reflect the perception that the inescapable reality of a sense of diversity may not be ignored in the 21st Western liberal democracies. Responsibility on the political level builds on the contention that exploring the individuals in social context will not be complete unless the political dimension of the individuals’ organizational role, along with the conduct both as individuals and, collectively, as an organization is properly recognized. McNamee and Fleming predict that during the 21st century, sports’ organizations will take the recognition of ethics and equity more closely and consciously to heart.
Teaching Values through Sports
In the United States, Angela Lumpkin (2008) a professor is the Department of Health, Sport and Exercise Sciences at the University of Kansas, notes in the article, “Teaching values through youth and adolescent sports,” sports have reportedly reflected societal values, as well as instilled these values in athletes. Through participation in sports, many parents believe, young people will learn how to cooperate with others; how to play fair, how to lose, as well as win, how to discipline themselves, and how to work as part of a team. Many youth and adolescent team coaches also contend that sports teach values to team members. In this midst of these positive perceptions, albeit “incidents of unsportsmanlike conduct, cheating, and other unethical behaviors in sports” Lumpkin (Â¶ 1) asserts, regularly surface. These unethical, negative practices prove to be much too common, not only at the collegiate or professional levels, but also in youth and adolescent sports. When they defend unethical behaviors within the context of sport, athletes and coaches may engage in what is known as “bracketed morality.”
Some coaches may mimic the professional model and encourage their players it is acceptable to win by any means necessary (Lumpkin). Similarly, decades ago, a philosophical movement known as “Situation Ethics” asserted that whether or not an act was ethical or unethical depended “on the situation” (Kreyche, 2007, Â¶ 3). This movement, like bracketed morality, lacked an intellectual base, but nevertheless appealed to a person’s gut. Philosophically, this practice may be deemed as an “existential feel” what constitutes the right thing to do.
In sport and in life, Lumpkin (2008) stresses, parents, coaches, and other adults who care for and are involved with youth and adolescent sports possess the responsibility reinforce moral reasoning, as well as teach young athletes the value of character. Lumpkin explains that “moral reasoning is the systematic process of evaluating personal values and developing a consistent and impartial set of moral principles by which to live” (Lumpkin, 2008, Strategies for, Â¶ 1). Adhering to a code of ethics, such as the following National Youth Sports Coaches Association Coaches’ Code of Ethics, Lumpkin explains, may help coaches teach values, while simultaneously keeping winning in perspective.
I will place the emotional and physical well-being of my players ahead of a personal desire to win.
I will treat each player as an individual, remembering the large range of emotional and physical development for the same age group.
I will do my best to provide a safe playing situation for my players.
I will promise to review and practice the basic first aid principles needed to treat injuries of my players.
I will do my best to organize practices that are fun and challenging for all my players.
I will lead by example in demonstrating fair play and sportsmanship to all my players.
I will provide a sports environment for my team that is free of drugs, tobacco, and alcohol, and I will refrain from their use at all youth sports events.
I will be knowledgeable in the rules of each sport that 1 coach, and I will teach these rules to my players.
I will use those coaching techniques appropriate for each of the skills that I
I will remember that I am a youth sports coach, and that the game is for children and not adults.
In the article, “Promoting sportsmanship in youth sports: perspectives from sport psychology; sport psychology provides crucial insights for improving behavior in sport,” Jay D. Goldstein, a doctoral student, and Seppo E. Iso-Ahola (2006), Professor in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of Maryland, assert that competition fits like a glove to sportsmanship. In addition, among youth sport participants, research suggests that ego orientation proves to be common. In one study, Goldstein and Iso-Ahola note, 84% of the teenage soccer player participants reported they would deliberately foul an opponent to stop him/her from scoring. Whether this constitutes a smart tactic, or depicts cheating and unsportsmanlike behavior, some contend, is debatable.
The majority of people, on the other hand, would likely concur agree that “deliberate low blows in boxing, kicking a downed player in football and soccer, and spitballs and corked-bats in baseball are wrong. The encouragement of “dirty play” by coaches, spectators, and parents is also considered by most people to be wrong” (Goldstein & Iso-Ahola, Â¶ 6). Nevertheless, some believers who whole-heartedly subscribe to this particular view of competition argue that such behaviors serve as smart tactics or moves and that if the sport’s participant cannot take the challenges, he/she should get off the playing field. These individuals perceive competition as a biological, innate drive that coaches must foster and promote among youths. Goldstein & Iso-Ahola not that William a. Henry, III, a culture critic, complains that as schools and other organizations avoid competitive sports, this action damages the development of competitiveness. According to Henry, acclimatizing competitive challenges to fit the ability level of the individual by adjusting the height of the basketball hoop to fit the players’ abilities reflects one negative example of this tactic.
Scientific evidence, Goldstein and Iso-Ahola (2006) argue, appears to counter Henry’s contention. Utilizing eight-foot-tall basketball hoops, or playing on narrower and shorter soccer field does not negate competition, but instead enables the child to learn skills rapidly, as he/she receives constructive instruction. This practice positively promotes task orientation, as it strives for task success and moving beyond personal performance goals. This particular perceptions emphasizes the competition and sportsmanship, rather than being mutual exclusive, may coexist. Examples of this practice in professional sports include Cal Ripken and Michael Jordan. Cal Ripken serves as one athlete who symbolizes true sportsmanship as he focused on mastering his basic skills, while simultaneously achieving his personal goals. Michael Jordan similarly displays humility and respects his opponents, confirming that competitiveness and sportsmanship (a prominent manifestation of ethics) are possible in youth sports (Goldstein & Iso-Ahola, 2006, Â¶ 7).
Psychologists denote the following two “orientations” that people possess toward competition:
1. Ego orientation and
2. task orientation. (Goldstein & Iso-Ahola, 2006, Â¶ 4)
The individual driven by his/her ego orientation chooses to compete to win over his/her opponents. By winning, the person aims to affirm and display his/her superiority. For the person who possesses strong ego orientations, the objective is to win the game by any available means, no matter what the win requires – even if the process mandates that the player cheats injures his/her opponent.
Some people, contrary to those who may be driven by their ego orientation may be fueled by task orientation. The competitor who possesses strong task orientation does not focus his/her energy on winning, but on the particular, current task. This person chooses to compete to persistently improve his/her skills, which characterizes competition as a contest with him/her self. This individual focuses on setting personal performance goals as part of his/her greater goals. Research relating to ego orientation and task orientation, albeit, demonstrates that both these constructs simultaneously exist in individuals. The relative degree of each construct, however, denotes the difference (Goldstein & Iso-Ahola, 2006, Â¶ 4).
In the study, “The sport behavior of youth, parents, and coaches: The good, the bad, and the ugly, “David Light Shields and Brenda Light Bredemeier, University of Missouri, Nicole M. LaVoi, University of Minnesota, and F. Clark Power (2005), University of Notre Dame, explored the occurrence of good and poor sport behaviors that young athletes, parents, and coaches perceive. In their investigation with 803 young athlete participants in the fifth through eighth grades, representing 10 various sports, utilizing a behavioral and attitudinal survey, these researchers also examined other related sportspersons’ attitudes. Results from this study suggest significant ethical problems routinely occur in numerous youth sport programs.
Shields, Bredemeier, LaVoi and Power (2005) discuss results of their in five sections:
1. The behavior of youth,
2. The behavior of parents,
3. The behavior of coaches,
4. attitudes toward good sport behaviors, and
5. prosocial sport behavior. (Shields, Bredemeier, LaVoi & Power, 2005, Discussion section, Â¶ 2)
The findings that resulted from the survey Shields, Bredemeier, LaVoi and Power (2005) implemented reflect a number of major issues that concern in contemporary youth sports. These include, but may not be limited to the following results:
Nearly one out of every 10 youth acknowledged cheating, with 21% of these indicating that they had cheated often.
13% of the youth admitted to having tried to hurt an opponent, with 19% of these acknowledging that they had tried to do so often.
31% of the youth indicated that they had argued with a sport official.
13% of the youth admitted having made fun of a less-skilled teammate.
27% reported that they had acted like “bad sports.” (Shields, Bredemeier, LaVoi & Power, 2005, Discussion section, Â¶ 2).
A number of the findings related in this literature review indicate that participation in youth sports for many youth may not be a positive experience. Ultimately, Shields, Bredemeier, LaVoi and Power (2005) assert that as approximately 47 million youth routinely participate in organized sport programs in the U.S., “the extent of ethically-relevant problems in youth sports is a question of considerable cultural and educational interest” (Â¶ 3). As sports depict a growing and prominent aspect of society and evidence repeatedly indicates a problem exists with/in the moral culture of a number of youth sport programs, consequently, a reasonable question that needs to be addressed is: “Why do such high levels of poor sport behaviors persist among youth, coaches, parents, and fans when all seem to agree that good sport behavior is important, and parents and coaches state that they actively seek to teach it?” (Shields, Bredemeier, LaVoi & Power, 2005, Prosocial Behavior section, Â¶ 3). Could part of the problem be, as Shields, Bredemeier, LaVoi and Power, purport, relate to the current culture in the U.S., where some participants in commercial sports often model less than optimal ethical behavior?
From the review of the literature, the researcher suggests the following three considerations could compliment the current research pool:
1. An international study to compare commonly accepted “practices” that athletes in various countries subscribe to.
2. An investigation to determine which relationships more likely generate factors that may potentially result in misconduct, along with organizational design elements which may prove successful in eliminating unethical practices in sports activities.
3. A qualitative study in which participants present considerations relating to ethics in sports in their own words, along with their recommendations regarding how to best counter unethical practices in sports.
Ultimately, the researcher asserts, no number of studies will resolve the challenges that unethical actions in sports present. As the Fox notes at the start of this literature review, “only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essentially invisible to the eye” (the Fox, as cited in Kreyche, 2007, Â¶ 8). Until one can “see” ethics, along with the value the practice of them relates, he/she will not likely “rightly” engage in sports or other personal practices.
Reading about ethics is about as likely to improve one’s behavior as reading about sports is to make one into an athlete.
– Mason Cooley (b. 1927)
Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1160166064.html
Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD — the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424445
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press, New York. Retrieved June 3, 2009, from www.bartleby.com/66/
Foster, Robert W. (2005). Games and ethics. January is a good time to look back at the just completed year. The year 2004 had the usual collection of high and low points, all with more or less importance depending on where one stands. Point of Beginning. BNP Media.
Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1127197462.html
Goldstein, J.D., & Iso-Ahola, S.E. (2006). Promoting sportsmanship in youth sports: Perspectives from sport psychology; sport psychology provides crucial insights for improving behavior in sport. JOPERD — the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(7), 18+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017425041
Gunston, R. (2005). Play Ball! How sports will change in the 21st century: A sports-minded futurist reveals how politics, celebrity, and other forces have undermined organized athletics and what the playing field will look like in the coming decades. The Futurist, 39, 31+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008426363
Humbarger, M. & DeVaney, S.A. (2005). Ethical values in the classroom: How college students responded. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences. American Association of Family &Consumer Sciences. Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Hypoxico Altitude Training. (N.d.). Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems. Retrieved June 05,
2009 from http://www.hypoxico.com/
Kelley, P.C., & Chang, P.L. (2007). A typology of university ethical lapses: Types, levels of seriousness, and originating location. Journal of Higher Education, 78(4), 402+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021487247
Kreyche, G.F. (2007). Do ethics promise too much? USA Today. Retrieved June 04, 2009
from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1276585101.html
Lippi, G., Franchini, M. & Guidi, G. (2007). Prohibition of artificial hypoxic environments in sports: health risks rather than ethics. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.
NRC Research Press. Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Lomax, Stan. (2008). Whatever happened to America’s ethical values? Business and Economic
Review. University of South Carolina Moore School of Business. Retrieved June 04,
2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1580013801.html
Lumpkin, a. (2008). Teaching values through youth and adolescent sports. Strategies: A Journal
for Physical and Sport Educators, 21, 19+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia
McNamee, M.J. & Fleming, S. (2007). Ethics audits and corporate governance: The case of public sector sports organizations. Journal of Business Ethics. 73:425 — 437. Springer.
Posner, R.A.(2008). The case against perfection: Ethics in the age of genetic engineering.
Duke Law Journal. Duke University, School of Law. Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-187494310.html
Proenza, Crystal. (2008). Honest: still the best policy: accounts of cheating and stealing scandals are everywhere. Now many people are asking, “does being honest really matter?.” Junior
Scholastic. Scholastic, Inc. Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Shields, D.L., Bredemeier, B.L. LaVoi, N.M. & Power, F.C. (2005). The sport behavior of youth, parents, and coaches: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Journal of Research in Character Education. Information Age Publishing CT. Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Ward, Kevin P. & Kretchmar, R. (2008). An integrated approach to an undergraduate kinesiology curriculum a case study about stalling in wrestling: specialized disciplines offer multiple perspectives on sport and exercise questions, but how can they be integrated? JOPERD
The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. American Alliance for Health,
Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam
Wiley, C. (1995). The ABC’s of business ethics: Definitions, philosophies and implementation. Industrial Management. Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc. Retrieved
June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G16629936.html
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!