So much would be different in Modern-day Canada if New France had not fallen. Canada would only have one official language which would be French. English would not be an official language. Major cities and provinces would have different names. The geographic mapping of Canada would also be different. Canada would be bigger and have more natural resources. The French people would intermarry with the natives and have a blended culture.
Would Canada have two official languages, English and French?
Canada would only have one official language which would be French. English would not be an official language. Through colonization, citizens have adopted the colonizer’s language throughout history. The colonized states tend to adopt the colonizer’s language even though the native language is still used. Over the years of getting accustomed to the Frenchmen, citizens would be speaking French fluently. Children born during the French reign would master the language. French would, therefore, be the dominant language over English. English would become just a subordinate language. English would however not become obsolete because of the neighbor’s influence.
What would the borders between the provinces and the USA look like and where would they be located?
The geographic mapping of Canada would also be different. Canada would be bigger and have more natural resources.The rich Ohio River valley would be part of Canada.Nova Scotia would also be part of Canada. Ile d’Orléans and Lévis would be part of Canada if New France overpowered Britain. The British would not have captured Montréal. By 1750 France would have French settlersfrom the Appalachian Mountains to the Atlantic coast.The French Canadians would have united with the first nation whom they lived together peacefully and drove out American settlers from Ohio Valley and the East Coast(Historical Thinking). New France would have Niagara rivers and St. Lawrence which were essential for trade.
Would the names of the provinces and major cities be different or the same?
Major cities and provinces would have different names.Jacques Cartier who was a famous explorer was exploring Canada across the Atlantic between 1534 and 1542. The country’s name was not Canada in those times. Jacquies heard two Iroquoianguides they had captured say Kanata which meant villagers(Immigration). Several years later the name Canada started appearing on maps.Present day Maine would be called St. Croix Island. Nova Scotia would be called Port-Royal. The British renamed the colony to the province of Quebec. If New France had not fallen, the province would have a completely different name.
How would this have impacted the Metis and the First Nations people?
Present-day Canada used to be the First Nations. They inhabited the land and conserved natural resources. They are divided into six groups namely: Plains First Nations, Iroquoian First Nations, Woodland First Nations, First Nations of the Mackenzie and Yukon River Basins and Pacific Coast First Nations(Government of Canada). The First Nations occupied woodlands, plains, forests, fertile lands, grasslands, semi-desert areas swampy terrain,and barren lands. The First Nations people would have been displaced from their natural inhabitations if New France won. Their way of life would be adversely affected because they would need to change livelihoods. The Metis people of Canada were among the First nations and relied on the fur trade.The Metis was formed through the marriage of Canadian and French fur trade. The Metis would have been favored and prospered. Their business would have grown,and their population also increased.
What would the social and political systems look like?
Canada would have a president sharing power with a prime minister. Parliament would be made up of the Senate and the National Assembly. All sections would have equal power. The county would have many parties. All citizens would be equal. There will have been a complete interaction of culture. French people would have married the natives and blended their cultures. Farming, fishing,and trade would be some of the major economic activities.
Government of Canada. “First Nations In Canada”. Rcaanc-Cirnac.Gc.Ca, 2017, https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1307460755710/1536862806124.
Historical Thinking. Historicalthinking.Ca, 2016, http://historicalthinking.ca/sites/default/files/files/docs/Att%201%20-%20The%20Fall%20of%20New%20France%20texts.doc.
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. “Discover Canada – Canada’S History – Canada.Ca”. Canada.Ca, 2015, https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/discover-canada/read-online/canadas-history.html
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