What sociologists speak regarding survival circuits

Introduction

Over recent times, numerous scholars have focused on issues concerning emerging adulthood and the identity’s psychological alteration structurally. Such a phenomenon has made youths identify themselves with non-institutionalized names. The main aim of the essay is to answer questions on religious-lite, what sociologists speak regarding survival circuits and argues that gender and class processes, in reality, are at work.

Religious-lite

The term refers to the youth in Israel born to the Jewish conventional religious homes in the country. The term is a slang name or a somewhat sarcastic label given those persons that do not take their religious duties fatally and drop burdensome responsibilities. The terminology involves a non-institutionalized form of identity (Hadad & Schachter, 2011). The persons that utilize the term as their form of identification have no set standard of beliefs or specific ideological or philosophical agenda. The religious-elite entails temporary structural identities used by youths to fit their present stage of life. The label religious-lite is a form of default identity that seems like the only better option among the available ones. Such a term shows the obligation an individual has, and lack of such an identity shows rejection of self-definition. Whereas to some other youths, the name religious-lite means nothing but serves a sense of the undefined individual.

Furthermore, using the term religious-lite indicates that one has a particular obligation towards the title. Some of the youths prefer not to have the identity to have it. The term is a symbol of massive obligations attached to its use; hence to other teens, it serves as a sense of burden and unnecessary. The identity as a religious-lite demonstrates an individual’s commitment towards other people’s perception of what an individual with such an identity ought to do or not to do (Hadad & Schachter, 2011). To some other youths, the term religious-lite is a form of rejecting categorization by other people. In this case, they adapt to and use the name to prevent people from categorizing them into specific groups in society. For this purpose, a term is a form of a social identifier that makes the youths visibly identifiable in the society as a mainstream religious Jew.  According to the Israeli youths, religious-lite is an exact commitment and symbol of identity. The label is a means through which the youths oppose other identities and helps one in getting a marriage partner. The term helps the youths to acquire flexibility by being religious and the right person before other teenagers.

Survival Circuits

The term survival circuits refer to multiple locations, multifaceted, and sets of actors constitute huge and long chains of workers and traders hailing from developing nations. The survival circuits individuals include women sent to developed nations as workers that send remittances back to their home countries (Sassen, n.d). The payments help in raising revenues hence promoting economic growth. Sociologists indicate that increased demand for low-wage employees to fill employment opportunities that give minimal advancement opportunities. The developing nation’s taps on such opportunities and sends women as house cleaners, sex workers and nannies hence creating a survival circuit as these women would generate income and send it back home enhancing government’s income generation. 

Women create a survival circuit through their institutions for private and private assistance. Women move across borders that form cross-border circuits that have remained diverse and generate income at the expense of the disadvantaged individuals (Sassen, n.d). Such a circuit across the borders involves illegally trafficked women for sex industries. The other circuit along borders includes both documented and non-documented women along borders that have become one of the most significant sources of hard currency for their home countries. Women looking for work, illegal traffickers and governments of such women become the actors that promote the development and growth of such circuits. 

The aspects that promote the development of cross-border circuits include the formation of global markets, increased trans-local and transnational networks and the advancement of communication technologies. The international economic system’s institutional encouragement of cross-border money flows and cross-border-markets has contributed towards the creation and strengthening of such circuits (Sassen, n.d). Survival circuits have formed due to increased significance to establish alternative means of creating a living, generating income for governments in the developing countries and generating profits. Decreased job opportunities for men due to globalization have contributed to strengthening such circuits for women and government survival back home. Increased demand for unskilled labour and low-wage job opportunities in developed nations has also led to the rapid and robust development of survival circuits mainly driven by women’s immigration. Globalization has accelerated the formation of such circuits in modern society.

Gender and Class processes at work in reality TV shows

The author states that reality TV makeover shows contain precise components of class re-written along the meritocratic framework encouraged by Blair’s government. The societal requirements have made people individualize, need to invent themselves and acquire flexibility by shaping themselves to fit in contemporary situations. Besides, they never become passively part of employees but instead ensure they remain employable and adapt their skills and themselves quickly altering labour market demands (McRobbie, 2004). The author argues that class creates a decisive re-appearance via and in the dimensions of malformed gendered individualization. Walby argues that variations among women have become more visible due to full participation in workforce issues. For this reason, older women have remained poor, unlike young women; hence age inequalities demonstrate the problem of class. Young women earn vast sums of money, unlike older women. There is an increase in disparities between young black and white women based on access to careers and education. Such a phenomenon demonstrates gender transformation with the young and qualified white women ascending to middle-class positions.

Bourdieu argues that middle-class women have served a vital role in the creation of class society not by their exceptional roles as mothers or wives, but as standard-bearers among middle-class women. Additionally, the values of the family for particular citizenship norms and for securing valuable cultural resources accruing among them via access to refinement and education (McRobbie, 2004). Bourdieu also argues that the movement of women towards labour markets has detached them from the ancient roles of the family. Re-invention of class variations broadly within media and cultural realm via the prism of individualization to generate and re-create divisions on social grounds has now become more explicit. For this reason, women taking new positions in the political arena have contributed heavily to the re-classification of women. Bourdieu argues that the individualization of women involves a social process that results in further social divisions through the denigration of poor and low-class women through symbolic violence. Class division among women brings about polarized positions in terms of class. Besides, it results in well-organized success or apparent failure. Furthermore, a girl’s body features demonstrate a low-class status.

References

Hadad, T., & Schachter, E. (2011). ‘Religious-lite’: a phenomenon and its relevance to the debate on identity development and emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth Studies14(8), 853-869.

McRobbie, A. (2004). Notes on ‘What Not To Wear’ and post-feminist symbolic violence. The Sociological Review52(2_suppl), 99-109.

Sassen, S. (2002). Global cities and survival circuits. American studies: An anthology, 185-193.

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