Social work as a practice was not defined as a profession until the early 20th century even in other countries there are different ideas as to what a social worker is; for example in some developing countries what in the United Kingdom as a youth worker is seen as a social worker. In England a probation officer does not need to be a qualified social worker whereas in Scotland it is necessary for the individual to be qualified. In Scotland social workers are registered with the Scottish Social Services Council (SSSC) and have to abide by their professional code of conduct, which is important as a national guideline due to social work being such a diverse area. It is important for social work to abide by these guidelines but also to use theories that are of relevance to inform their practice.
Social work theory throughout the years has continued to be an important part of social work practice. The purpose of this assignment is to critically discuss and analyse the relevance to two of these theories into practice using the ODonnell family. The two theories this assignment will look at is the attachment theory, Eriksons eight stages of man and also to look at anti oppressive practice. It is important to look at these different types of theories as they are all important dynamics that are necessary for social workers to understand the society, individuals and politically and socially influenced world in which they have to work in.
An example of a mid range theory is the theory of attachment, the first theory of attachment was written by John Bowlby; Bowlby believed that the attachment between mother and infant was important to the childs future development. Bowlby also believed in four characteristics of attachment: proximity management, safe haven, secure base and separation distress. If a child suffers separation from their primary carer (their mother) then this may manifest into social problems later in life however if the child has unpredictable contact with their mother then it will have insecure attachment. Bowlby later looked at attachment throughout different ages and stages of development, to understand how a person that losses or is separated from an individual they had developed an attachment with would be affected. It has been identified that attachment behaviour is inbuilt as it can be triggered if a child is scared or frightened. If a child feels loved and valued by their primary caregiver it is highly likely that the child will develop a good level of self-esteem and perhaps may be more confident and independent in later life due to a feeling of belonging and acceptance. However should a child feel they are rejected or neglected by their primary caregiver it is like they may feel unwanted and unlovable. The positive example of attachment would allow the child to develop a trusting bond which would not be the case with the negative attachment example. This relates to Eriksons eight stages of man; this is an infants stage of psychosocial development which has two paths a child can take depending on the care they receive trust versus mistrust is established.
This theory of attachment was developed further by Mary Ainsworth in the 1970s in her study Strange Situations based on observing children aged twelve to eighteen months, she described three types of attachment that she discovered during her studies these were; secure, ambivalent and avoidant attachment. Secure attachment is seen as the most preferred and beneficial to a childs positive development; the care given by the primary caregiver would be attentive and provide a solid base for the child to progress emotionally, socially and intellectually. Ambivalent attachment tends to occur when the primary carer is unreliable and unstable this would be classed as emotional neglect which may leave the child unsure of their place within the family which may result in the child displaying distressing or anxious behaviour. Children who are victims of this type of behaviour may be very attention seeking in order to gain the focus of those around them that they do not get at home. A child however that is a victim of avoidant attachment would perhaps be less likely to show their true feelings or talk about them as they are afraid of those they are close to leaving them. The childs lack of emotional response would possibly be because the primary caregiver in these cases will perhaps show more care and attention when the child is content however if the child shows visible signs of distress or need they will pull away from them. In some cases children exposed to avoidant care givers may take drugs or alcohol to cope with their fear of rejection from others.
This attachment theory was even further developed by Main and Solomon in the 1980s they outlined a further type of attachment called disorganised attachment or insecure attachment, a childs primary caregiver in this stage is confusing to the child. Children who are subject to these varying behaviours tend to fear the loss of that attention even though they are given the attention they require.
A child who has been unable to have a secure attachment, for example through abuse, fostering or adoption, is more likely to have problems in future with their relationships with others or suffer emotionally.
Attachment theory has been used in social work to work with children and families and has more recently become part of mental health practice. It is important to acknowledge in social work how a persons past in terms of the family unit they were brought up in and the level of care they received can affect them in the present; also how the individuals past experiences can affect their own children. However it is also important for social workers to look other theories as well to help inform their practice and not focus on a singular theory. This theory is also a past orientated theory as it looks at how the past effects the present.
In relation to the ODonnell family Kate would appear to have been a victim of avoidant attachment due to being left by her mother and taken into care at an early age. Because of her past she may be fearful of her children rejecting her as her self esteem would have been affected due to being in and out of care homes. This difficulty in attaining meaningful attachments may also have contributed to her being a lone parent and Kate is repeating history with her own children as they are developing a meaningful attachment with her friend Frances. It is also significantly appropriate to examine how this is affecting Kates children and how this may manifest later if intervention is not made by social workers to bring a closer bond to the primary carer.
A further mid range theory that was touched upon in a previous passage was established by a psychosocial psychologist by the name of Erik Erikson. Eriksons theory was loosely based around Freuds past works however it was developed into what is called Eriksons Eight Stages of Man. According to Erikson at certain ages throughout a persons life they will go down one of two developmental paths, however it is necessary for those using this theory that it is not simply one path or the other. Erikson acknowledged the fact that although a person should go down the The eight stages are Trust versus Mistrust, Autonomy versus Shame, Doubt, Initiative versus Guilt, Industry versus Inferiority, Identity versus Identity Confusion, Intimacy versus Isolation, , and finally the last stage Integrity versus Despair. The first stage takes place in infancy this is when a child is most vulnerable as they rely entirely on their care givers; if the child comes to know that they can rely on their primary caregiver as the care giver is continuously there for them then they will develop to trust more than a child whom is ignored or has unreliable caregivers and develops mistrust. Each oof these stages has an impact on the next stage of development and therefore it is detrimental to producing a balanced human being that the child passes through with more positive experiences of emotional development than negative. In the second stage autonomy versus shame this takes place when a child is around the ages of one to four the third stage initiative versus guilt takes place between the ages of four and six, if a child has in stage four the child between the ages of six to twelve industry versus inferiority
In stage five identity versus role confusion this takes place in adolescence generally between the ages of twelve and twenty; at this age an up and coming adult is most likely to be at the peak of peer pressure and will be discovering who they are both as a person and sexually. This can be a very hard time for individuals but with a good base they will be likely to find who they are with easae however it is possible that they will become confused for example the loss of a father figure for a boy may result in that person being unable to undersand why the Eriksons eight stages of man have been criticized due to the fact that it was based ona study of men, it can be seen as a rigid document and does not take into account individual factors. For example an individual whom has a severe learning disability and perhaps has been psychologically examined to be at a mental age of five will not suffer from the complexities of stage five although that may be their corresponding age with Eriksons chart. Although this criticism should be kept in mind, Eriksons stages of man can be a useful tool as a guideline for use in social work.
Although Eriksons model may seem very black and white it is important to remember that during each stage of development in order to have a healthy perspective in life, it is important in each stage that the strongest is the positive from the scale, there must be some level of negative development; for example a little bit of mistrust is healthy as to trust naively would eventually result in a individual putting themselves in danger. Trust versus Mistrust takes place during infancy; the route in which the infants personality takes depends on the parent to provide those needs that the infant cannot satisfy itself. If the mother does not take care of her child through neglect the infant will not develop basic trust and will take a negative step on the psychosocial scale. Autonomy versus Shame, Doubt takes place during early childhood, starting in a childs second year of life, once again children are reliant on their parents to support them during this stage. This is when a toddler tries to become an individual. If the childs vulnerability does not get the necessary support from the care givers then they will develop a sense of shame and doubt. Initiative versus Guilt takes place also during childhood normally developing during the ages of four and five; this is where a child tries to establish their own boundaries as they try to establish their identity
In stage four, Industry versus Inferiority, taking place up until puberty, this is when a child tries to be recognized for their achievements, for example at school for doing a project, however if they do not get this desired recognition and feeling of achievement then it can result on them developing a feeling of inferiority, inadequacy. Parents still play an important role in this stage however as it takes place primarily at school, teachers are important. Stage five, identity versus identity confusion takes place during adolescence this is when the individual try to find a sense of themselves, this Stage six, intimacy versus isolation is the first stage to take place during adulthood, intimacy with other human beings can only happen when identity is established. The intimacy can be with a friend or a lover it involves merging personalities with others. It is important for an individual to have this intimacy otherwise it can result in them being alone and withdrawn. Stage seven, Generativity versus stagnation, this is the second stage an individual goes through in adulthood, people who are generative are productive, tolerant and able to care for others and themselves equally. It is not always expressed through parenthood sometimes it can be through being a teacher. Those who are unable to develop in this stage result in a feeling of being stuck as they are unable to care for other people properly. The eighth stage is integrity versus despair, this takes place during old age, an individual in this stage establishes integrity being satisfied with their life and believing it was important and had a purpose. The person who reflects on life positively, according to Erikson, have an acceptance of death. However, a person who reflects on their life, feeling full of regret of their past it is also shown through a report to researchers that those who were more feeble through their bodys degeneration felt as though they had little control (Geppert & Halisch, 2001) and therefore despair would occur as they were not as willing to accept death. (Cloninger, 2008).
Eriksons theory of psychosocial development was based on clinical evidence there has been further research into this work specifically in the adolescent stage of identity versus identity confusion. This research was accomplished by James Marcia whom
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!