The Rise of Anti-Semitism in Europe Research Paper


Even though the term anti-Semitism was first popularized in 1879 through the works of Wilhelm Marr a German journalist, its very existence is traceable much further in history. Wilhelm Marr describes anti-Semitism simply as hostility or hatred towards Jews (Young p. 36). Throughout the Middle Ages, and in the wider Europe, the majority of the Jewish people was forced to live in confined neighborhoods (ghettos) and was denied citizenship. This was consequent of the Jews upholding their beliefs in religion (Judaism) as opposed to what was their captors expectation. In an effort to get more Jews to drop their religion, more accusations were levied upon the Jews. They ranged from the murder of children, child abduction, and the use of their victims blood for libation (Young p. 86). With the rise of Christianity in much of Europe, anti-Semitism continued to spread with vilification of Judaism in an effort to increase the number of converts. The religion was simply made to seem tainted and its followers were treated as lesser humans.

Definition of Anti-Semitism

According to the European Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia, anti-Semitism is a perception expressed as hatred of Jews. Physical and rhetorical demonstrations of anti-Semitism addressed towards a race or Jewish individuals, towards the Jewish community, their religion or religious institutions and facilities and/or to their property (Young p. 32). The modern use of the term anti-Semitism refers to the sum total of discriminatory statements, resentments, actions, trends and attitudes, irrespective of the social or racist motivation acting as the driving force. With respect to the Germans dictatorship ideology, anti-Semitism is seen as a social phenomenon serving as an epitome for creating prejudices and an instrument for constructing political enemy stereotype (Cheyette p. 115). The above definitions comprehensively broaden the spectrum on the earlier limited references made to anti-Semitism only as expressed hostility and hatred. The two definitions encompass a host of characteristics, attitudes and qualities of prejudice.

The Rise of Anti-Semitism in Europe

The existence of religion and the practice of Christianity in the Roman Empire are seen to date back to the 3rd and 4th centuries. The very existence of different religions and various beliefs is expected to give rise to different understanding. The different beliefs among the Jews and the Christians created a rift where hatred for the Jews started to brew. A misunderstanding of the religious beliefs practiced by the Jews created the need for a clear distinction and separation between the Christians and the Jews. The Jews who were the minority and sparsely distributed were forced to play an outsider role both socially and economically way back in the medieval communities. The Jews were omitted from goods exchange; they did not have a significant influence in production and economic activities.

In the ancient Babylonia empires of Rome and Greece, Jews originating from the ancient Judea kingdom were persecuted and criticized for upholding their social customs and religious beliefs contrary to adopting those of their conquerors. The persecution pushed the Jews away from major activities on the society relegating them to the economic activities that Christians would not undertake. Such activities include; economic activities entailing dealing with money and pawnbroker business. In the early Christian teaching doctrine, dealing with money was prohibited to Christians since interest charging activities an activity of dealing money was considered to be as usury practice (Aschheim and Steven E. p 47).

However, in order for the Jews to undertake these activities, they sought protection from the ruling elite the kings and princess by paying heavy levies. With the Jews playing an outsider role in the social and economic arena in the medieval ages, they were ever so recognized as subjects to the state. In the middle ages, the need to afford the Jews a legal status gave rise to the definition of the Jews as servants of the state. This meant that the Jews are obligated to pay taxes in return enjoying minimal protection from persecution. The cash-rich Jews considered the hefty payments and bought protection from territorial lords as well as permission to settle permanently.

19th and 20th Century Anti-Semitism in Europe

In the 19th century, during the French revolution, the implicit emancipation of the Jews began and spread to the rest of European countries. In early onset of Jewish emancipation, there was a general belief among the European countries that owing to their small numbers the Jews would dissolve and assimilate within the Christian society. Increased antagonism between the majority and the minority Jews is however still evident. The growing enlightenment in the region gave rise to emancipation fueled by the coexistence notion for tolerance (Laqueur p. 77).

The emancipation called for the liberation of the Jews from legal and social constraints. This did not come to be as the Jews maintained their identity and rejected the conditions of emancipation. The very existence of a vibrant and thriving Jewish community baffles a majority and stir up even more negative reactions. Even with though negative stereotyping of the Jews is traceable few centuries back, the Jewish community strongly maintains their hold on tradition and religion (Weissbrod p. 236).

The notion old wine in new bottles appropriately describes the emersion of a new type of bias towards Jews in the 19th century (Katz and Steven. T. p. 216). Different to the more previous Christian anti-Judentum, that associated Jews with the fiendish, the new anatomy of Jew-hatred replaced worldly categories for religious stereotypes. Drawing on Darwinism crude interpretation of the Jews; Jews are now defined as a racial group bent on world domination (Young p. 22). Instead of the groups earlier definition Jews as followers of Satan, they were now accused of colluding to rule over the world. First published in 1903, the Czarist forgery is known as the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, (Bessel and Richard p. 11). It purported to depict an assembling of rabbis plotting a scheme that sought to engulf the civilized world by the dispute. With the conflict ensuing, the Jews would come out jubilant by taking part on each side of the expected struggle. With these accusations brought to light against the Jews as found in the Protocols, it is no wonder that later Nazi canard, that Jews were fundamentally controlling both international finance and the Bolshevik Revolution. Despite the fact that the two are somewhat contradictory, there is some sense

Across Europe, there rose more profound hatred and fear for the Jews that earned the contextual classification of the racial science. The racial science deliberation and assessments prevailed much of European throughout the late 19th century (Bessel and Richard p. 16). A member of the German Reichstag, – Wilhelm Marr in 1879 is quoted saying that Gentile Europe should fear the Jewish race and not the Jewish religion. Marr used the term anti-Semitism to differentiate between the medieval anti-Jewish hatred, that was religion based religion, and the new form of prejudice vented on the race. The publication of Houston Stewart Chamberlain’s work, The Foundations of the 19th Century (1899) further strengthened Marr’s anti-Semitism. The publication humankinds history is a struggle between the Aryan race and the Semites. The Jewish Semites, Chamberlain charged, were the enemies of the Aryan race and periled Aryan superiority.

Christianity was viewed by many of these racial thinkers, especially in Germany, as a form of Judaism for the Gentiles, and they were determined to breach the arrest of both Jews and Judaism on the Aryan race (Cheyette P. 115). German composer Richard Wagner is one of the European anti-Semites who would synthesize these Aryan racist themes in their entirety. Amongst many of operas presentation, he is seen to arouse a pre-Christian German religion, where the Jews, concealed as blemished characters, are impersonated as the enemy.

Account Anti-Semitism in other European Nations

In Austria, anti-Semitism egressed as a political movement in the 1880s from similar economic and social circumstances, initially from the petit-bourgeoisie and the social outer boundary. Anti-Semites constituted their first organizational basis in artisan cooperatives and clubs. At the same time, Georg Ritter von Schnerer pushed aggressively against Jews in the Imperial Assembly.

The deputy Karl Lueger was the charismatic consolidative figure of the Christian Social Party, that, alike to Stoecker in Berlin, tapped animosity towards Jews by merging it with an anti-liberal and anti-socialist politics. Unlike Stoecker and cohorts in the German Reich, the demagogy won after his supporters had gained the majority in the Vienna local council in 1895, Lueger was appointed mayor in 1897 (Kritzman and Kritzman p. 33).

The merits of his local politics have only served to marginalize the fact that they would not have been possible in the first place without the cohesive anti-Semitism galvanizing the Christian-Social base by appealing to the emotions.

In France, that in 1791 had granted the small Jewish minority (80,000 people, or 0.02 percent of the population) civil rights in as part of the French Revolution, anti-Semitic currents stemmed from a mixture of motives (Kritzman and Kritzman p. 15). While Sephardic Jews in southern France took on hardly any integration problems, the Ashkenazi Jews in the northeast faced animosity on a number of fronts. Some of the animosity hailed partly from Christian-Catholic roots, partly from the form of racism articulated by de Gobineau and propagated by Edouard Drumont, in La France Juive from 1886, and partly initiated by the socialists (a feature specific to France). Anti-Semitism was a factor integrating the versatile forces of clerical and nationalists opposition towards the Third Republic, perceived as a secularized state or modern capitalist (Kritzman and Kritzman p.123).

French anti-Semitism, matchlessly more aggressive than its German manifestation, that was radical in its rhetoric, climaxed in the Dreyfus Affair that from 1894 held the French public in suspense for years (Kritzman and Kritzman P. 165). The Jewish army captain Dreyfus upon being charged with treason, was sentenced to deportation on the basis of falsified evidence in a dubious trial. Following the intervention of intellectuals (most famously Emile Zola with his open letter “J’accuse” in 1898), the proceedings led to the most grievous constitutional crisis of the Third Republic. This ended with a Republican victory over the nationalists, clergy and anti-Semites. Anti-Semitism as an anti-modern political movement suffered a significant defeat in France, without becoming completely irrelevant.

Russia was synonymous for bitter and violent anti-Semitism by the end of the 19th century. Jews living in the rayon settlement in the west of the country were regularly haunted by pogroms, were exposed to uncertainty in relation to their legal rights and endeared massive poverty. Persecutions upon the Jews escalated following the murder of Tsar Alexander II (1881). Generally, the Jews in Russia who were into a large part Polish Jews under Russian rule lived until the First World War in a situation comparable to Jews in Central Europe in the 18th century. They were a marginalized minority with no social status, rights and excluded from employment opportunity and advancements.

Without the religion racist and nationalist components, anti-Semitism was the instrument of anti-modern Russian politics. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion said to have originated from Russia was a propaganda document the Tsarist secret police allegedly proving a Jewish world conspiracy. This worked excessively well to heighten the hatred of the Jews and further propagate their continued persecution. Protocols the propaganda instruments were distributed worldly as an instrument for anti-Semitism.

Anti-Semitism case of Germany

In 1819, violence and riots similar to those seen in the Middle Ages erupted starting with Wrzburg, the Hep-Hep riots spreading throughout Germany and extending to Denmark across. The clear rejection of minority integration in the society, aggressive altercations between the majority and the minority Jews was experienced in this period. These actions were however fueled be social and economic crises that were prevailing in the early 9th century. The ruling elite and the Christians redirected their frustrations with the poor economic and social turnouts to aggression against the Jews.

The 19th century saw a new dimension of anti-Semitism that exploited the arguments advanced by Social Darwinist was realized. The proponents of the arguments sought to give an understanding of what anti-Semitism entails. Their well-founded scientific arguments were instrumentally coined to lay down anti-Semitism scientific foundations. The Arguments in the article; An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races by Arthur Count de Gobineau published between 1853 and 1855 was denoted as a racial theory (Weissbrod p. 232). This and similar Social Darwinist arguments connoted a negative racial characteristic of the Jews.

The new anti-Semitism theorists uphold the medieval racist observation of the Jews as parasites. They only seem to deviate from anti-Judaism by asserting that unlike religious beliefs, racial characteristics are changeless. Irrespective of the fact that the Jews were still subjected to violence, hostility, emancipation and all these work against political liberalism and social modernization, the Social Darwinist arguments are seen to emphasize scientifically the parasite metaphor (Kritzman and Kritzman P. 258)

Further direction of frustrations and aggression to the Jews following misfortunes and trauma experienced 1879 gave rise to the scapegoat theory (Ozsva?th p. 136). This theory sought to explain and justify the rise of anti-Semitism among the European nations. The advocates of the scapegoat theory posit that in times of crisis the society will conveniently assign blame on a group they have a history of misgivings with. In the late 19th century the Jews were the conveniently available group

The social aggression, hostility against the Jews and rising scientific discussions on anti-Semitism got to a peak in Germany in November 1879, with an anti-Semitism debate in Berlin. This debate was sparked off through an article in the Preuische Jahrbcher on November 1879 by Heinrich von Treitschke. The re-known history writer argued that the Jews in German have no will assimilate thus downplaying the much feared Eastern European Jewish mass emigration (Aschheim and Steven E. p. 60).

The publication the Der Sieg des Judenthums ber das Germanenthum in February 1879 is seen to have refueled the branding of Jews in Germany as the reasons for every one of their hardships. The 1873 economic crises were blamed on the Jews since 90% of the brokers and Speculators are Jews. Increased campaigns on press and Christian religions papers (Catholic papers) continued to denounce and increasingly deepen resentments against the Jews (Ozsva?th p 167).

During the late 19th century, the 1835-1909 chaplain at Berlin court Adolf Stoecker a founder to the Christian Socialist Workers Party played his role in denouncing the Jews. The chaplain sought to dissuade people from embracing social democracy. With full knowledge of the Anti-Semitic expectation of his followers, their social and economic desires the leader coined his speeches towards his own benefit. The efforts in anti-Semitic were however limited in appealing to his audience. The politicization of Christianity with anti-Sematic Slogans however impacted on the 20th century Protestant Church (Bauer and Nili p. 118).

In the late 19th century, a Private scholar Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927) capitalized on the Germans anti-Semitic developing antitheses between the Aryan and Jewish race. Chamberlain worked with catchy stereotypes, for instance denying that Jews were capable of any kind of inward religiosity and fantasized on the alleged inflated influence Jews exerted in the modern world. No less sinister was the influence of Chamberlain’s father-in-law who he revered and admired, Richard Wagner (1813- 1883). As a composer, music dramatist and writer, Wagner transported his anti-Semitic convictions, expressed for instance in Wagner’s striking and irrational essay “Das Judentum in der Musik” (1850) (Cheyette p. 111).

Although the antitheses Chamberlain by bore a limited appeal, it did not mean that organized anti-Semitism could not contribute significantly to political edge in Germany. The new anti-Semitism cannot, however, be underestimated in contributions to the cultural mood on a time. Thus, future German leaders Kaiser Wilhelm II and Adolf Hitler choreographed anti-Semitism for political edge (Cheyette p. 110)

In the late 19th century majority of European societies were seen to conveniently place blame for their misfortunes in wars, economic turnout and social upheavals on the Jews (Rajchman, Chil and Solon p.116). The Jews were a minority, sparsely dispersed group whose, social and religious ways did not appease a majority of the population in the European societies. These societies thus turned against the Jews directing their aggression and frustration towards the first by blaming the negative occurrence on them. Later the Jews were subjected to all manners of ill-treatment, persecution and later on alienation as seen in the case for Germany.

Anti-Semitism; Hitlers Rule

The advent of the First World War 1914, despite the proportion of Jews war volunteers being high in relation to their population Germans reservations about the Jews, was recharged. Rumors on their participation in the war were that they were shirking. By the end of the world war one, the Weimar Republic was out of Germans rule. This marked the high point of German-Jews cultural assimilation and the beginning of social dissimilation.

Propaganda on anti-Semitic, that sought to place blame for the disgraceful consequences of war defeat, the social decline fears held by petit-bourgeoisie and German national pride that is wounded turned “the Jews” into the blameful party (Kritzman and Kritzman P. 98). In the manifestos of the nationalist parties of the postwar years and vlkisch, above all the Nazi Party from 1920 and the German National People’s Party, anti-Semitism constituted the ideological compound for engulfing the fear of losing one’s livelihood with accounts for the social problems and economic turmoil, and was the key to convincing anti-republic and anti-democratic protagonists.

The result of this anti-Semitic upheaval was the murder of Foreign Minister Rathenau in 1922 and the endeavors to assassinate other democratic Jewish origin politicians. Anti-Semitism was of constituent importance for National Socialism. Without guaranteeing any innovative efforts of their own, the ideologists of the Nazi Party and Hitler adopted simply the racial postulates and constructs of the hostile anti-Jewish sentiment from the 19th century. The manifesto of the 1920 Nazi Party from plans set out to annual emancipation by setting aside citizenship and positions of public office for the non-Jews as well as placing a ban on immigration.

Anti-Semitism was one of the cardinal dogmas in Hitler’s programmatic Mein Kampf and was passed around in demagogical fervency at rallies as the remedy to all evils. The traditional stereotypes like the supposed Jewish striving for world dominion, the disproportionately large regulate exerted by “Jews” in the culture, academia and media were the themes of the propaganda, “explained” by the concepts of 19th-century racial anti-Semitism (Rajchman, Chil and Solon P.119).

The “Protocols of the Elders of Zion” imported from Russia, was the core basis for the conspiracy theory by the ideologists of the Nazi Party and Hitler. Their duty in explaining all that happened in the world was also inherent to this conglomerate. It was cited by Hitler, commented on by chief ideologist – Alfred Rosenberg – and distributed by the publishing operation owned by the Nazi Party (Bessel and Richard p.15).

The lowermost abuse was the domain of Julius Streicher, the editor of the newspaper Der Strmer, which launched vile tirades against Jews from 1923 up until 1945 under the motto borrowed from Treitschke, “the Jews are our misfortune” (Kritzman and Kritzman P.218). Anti-Semitism became an objective policy of the state upon the Nazi Party assuming power in 1933: pushing Jews out of public life, out of business and society, then out of German national territory was the plan.

Following the initial public overindulgences, for instance, the boycott campaign of spring 1933 justified by allegations that Jews had vocalized war on the German people this policy was acted on through legal means. This was with the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (Aschheim and Steven E. p. 45). From April 1933, Jews were removed from public service and set as social outcasts by the Aryan paragraphs. Jewish lawyers were also disallowed from practicing in April 1933, while the Editor Law of October 1933 refused Jewish journalists employment, Jewish cattle traders were no longer allowed to work, and doctors first lost their authorization then their license.

The Nuremberg Laws of September 1935 marked the concluded abjuration of emancipation: Jews were no longer citizens of the German republic and also they were nationals with no political rights (Reich Citizenship Law) (Aschheim and Steven E. p. 56). The Blood Protection Law forbid marriage with non-Jews and made sexual contact between Jews and Aryans an offense that is punishable as an act of racial defilement. Propaganda complemented this discrimination by the means of the legal system. The Highpoints of the propaganda were the exposition, the interminable Jew in November 1937 in Munich which was subsequently shown in Vienna, Berlin, Bremen, Dresden and Magdeburg. The defaming propaganda show was the inspiration and source for Fritz Hippler’s film of the same name that was released to cinemas in 1940. The film was shown in nicknamed adaptations in the occupied territories; the compilation film fictitious to be a documentary, with anti-Jewish clichs montaged with mocking commentaries as a way of hammering an antagonistic motion against the minority. Films like Jud S (Veit Harlan 1940) and Die Rothschilds applied more pernicious ways in an attempt to strive to accomplish the same target (Bauer and Nili p. 256).

Hostile caricatures of Jews that paved the way to organized mass murder were not only spread by the leading chief of Reich Propaganda Ministry – Joseph Goebbels. Other leaders in the Nazi undertook similar actions. The organizational leader of the Party, Robert Ley, Reich campaigned against the minority, while Himmler, Gring among other dictators were equally excessive in ranting anti-Jewish campaigns in favor of the Nazi state. The hostile accusations were passed down in numerous, stories, chronicles, sermons and songs. They were also given a demonstration by Anderl von Rinn in Tyro. The cult was permitted by the official Church towards the 1980s. Just how perilous these legends of ritual execution and blood libel were for the Jews is attested to by the pogrom in Kielce, Poland. In 1946 a simple rumor that a previously disappeared child has been killed by Jews was sufficient to spark days of disruptions leading to the murder of at least 42 Jews.

The Holocaust

The November 1938 pogroms (violence directed against all member of the minority group the Jews with motivation for violence extending far beyond the religious aspects) denoting the transition from exclusion to persecution. The persecutions were an inextricable form of violence in dimension and included robbery, plundering and theft. Through the Aryanization rule, Jews were removed from business and the economy and their public life as a minority came to a standstill.

The year 1939 instituted limitations of movement freedom and with the Jew houses segregated in the form of ghettoization. More pressure was exerted to force Jews into migrating, forced further ahead in November with the imprisonment of almost 30,000 Jews in the concentration camps of Buchenwald, Dachau and Sachsenhausen. New cruelties, persecutions and torments were ushered in once the war broke. They included curfew in the evening, reductions in food rations supplies, car use prohibition, prohibitions on telephones use among others. Additional actions in 1940 included the deliberate deportation of the Jews to the island off the east coast of Africa. This was known as Madagascar Plan” where the Reich Security Office and the Foreign Office (Waxman p. 28).

The final phase put into practice under the anti-Semitism program started in the summer of 1941. This was the physical annihilation of the Jews. After the invasion of the Soviet Union, the “Einsatzgruppen der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD” (SS paramilitary death squads) systematically murdered the Jewish population. The September 1941 requirement for Jews to wear an identifier mark (Jewish badge) and the ban on migration upon the Jews paved way for the deportations to the ghettos and death camps in the East.

In January 1942 the Wannsee Conference was held and was presided over by Reinhard Heydrich. This conference was inadequately late to stand in the way of the annihilation of the Jews. The organized murder of Jews through mass executions was already in full swing, above all in the Byelorussia, Baltic and Ukraine. In fall 1941, in the Auschwitz concentration camp and Majdanek in the fall of 1942 Jews were murdered in gas chambers. In the fall of 1941, Warthegau extermination camp on Polish soil in Chelmno was set up. The victims were suffocated in gas trucks without staying in the camp. A total of 1.75 million Jews were murdered with gas by 1943 in the three extermination camps run by the Sobibor (spring 1942), Aktion Reinhardt, Belzec (November 1941) and Treblinka (June 1942).

The Reich Propaganda of anti-Semitism climaxed with the genocide of six million Jews in the Holocaust. Anti-Semitism simply did not vanish with the collapse of the Nazi regime. Besides the traditional manifestations (Christian anti-Judaism and racial anti-Semitism), “secondary anti-Semitism” continue to emerge as a reflex to the Holocaust, born out of feelings of guilt and shame, that for example, focused on indemnity payments. Increasingly pertinent are those hard feelings expressed in the pretext of anti-Zionism (Weissbrod p. 233). This pretext on the face of it targets the state of Israel, where there exists a dispute on its right of existence, but has a true focus on Jews collectively


Works Sited

Aschheim, and Steven E. Culture and Catastrophe: German and Jewish Confrontations with National Socialism and Other Crises. New York:: New York UP, 1996. Print.

Bauer, Yehuda., and Keren. Nili. A History of the Holocaust. New York:: Franklin Watts,, 2001. Print.

Bessel, and Richard. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: Comparisons and Contrasts. Cambridge England; . New York:: Cambridge, 1996. Print.

Cheyette, B. Between “Race” and Culture: Representations of “the Jew” in English and American Literature. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford UP, 1996. Print.

Katz, and Steven. T. The Holocaust in Historical Context. Jaffe Holocaust Collection. New York: : Oxford UP, 1994. Print.

Kritzman, L.D., and P.L.D. Kritzman. Auschwitz and After: Race, Culture, and “the Jewish Question” in France. New York: Routledge, 1995. Print.

Laqueur, Walter. The Terrible Secret: Suppression of the Truth About Hitler’s “Final Solution.” Boston: Little, Brown, 1980. Print.

Ozsva?th, Z. In the Footsteps of Orpheus: The Life and Times of Miklo?S Radno?Ti. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000. Print.

Rajchman, Chil, and . Beinfeld. Solon. The Last Jew of Treblinka:A Survivor’s Memory 1942-1943. N.p.:: Pegasus, 2012. Print.

Waxman, Zoe?. Writing the Holocaust: Identity, Testimony, Representation. . New York:. Oxford UP, 2006. Print.

Weissbrod, Rachel. ” “Celebrity Anti-Semitism “a Translation Studies Perspective”.” Language Sciences.52 (2015): 231-40. Print.

Young, James Edward. . Writing and Rewriting the Holocaust: Narrative and the Consequences of Interpretation. Bloomington:: Indiana UP Array, 2015. Print.



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