The raising of children as an intimate practice

Risk & Abuse

Child Abuse Through Three Studies

The raising of children is an intimate practice in which social, cultural, religious, and ethnic beliefs are often a part. Though the fact that different ways of raising children exist is certainly positive, as no one model could be determined that would fit all children and families, it is still necessary to insure that children are protected. Because many cultural methods of punishing children exist, however, this can be quite difficult to accomplish. The news is packed with children who have died as victims of child abuse, some of whom had even been reported to child services agencies. Still, child services agencies are also flooded with claims that cannot be substantiated. How can the agencies tell the difference? Further, and perhaps even more troubling, how can child services agencies tell the difference between child abuse and cultural practice — when is a practice considered abuse? These are the questions that I had when undertaking this study. I wanted to learn more about child abuse, and especially the connection of child abuse and culture. More specifically, I wanted to determine how child protection could be achieved in light of so many mitigating circumstances that often cause child abuse to be classified as something other than what it is, in addition to allowing substantiated cases of child abuse to go unreported.

To answer my question, I first wanted to determine what makes parents abuse a child and what affects that abuse might ultimately have on the child. To answer this question, I looked at Kim et al.’s article, “Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model.” In this article, the authors tested two hypotheses. First, they believed that child abuse could be used as a predictor of children that run away during adolescence. Second, they authors suggested that running away can then lead to “later delinquency and victimization” (19) in their teenage years. Thus, the authors ultimately predict a vicious cycle in which children are abused, run away, and become likely sufferers of crimes and delinquents themselves later in life. The authors drew a sample from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, which “is a prospective study of children and families begun in the mid-1970s to examine correlates and consequences of child maltreatment” (Kim et al. 21). The entire sample numbered 457 children from 297 families. Children from welfare programs, protective services programs, Head Start, day care, and nursery schools were sampled. A total of 248 boys and 209 girls were studied, and most of the children were from two parent households with relatively low incomes in the 1970s. Information was collected on these children when they were in the early childhood years, school years, and teens (Kim et al. 21-22). Variable such as physical and psychological abuse, sexual abuse, running away, juvenile delinquency, juvenile victimization, and gender were considered. The authors used chi-square tests, as well as least squares mean variance-adjusted estimator was used “to accommodate the modeling of ordered categorical variables of child maltreatment” (Kim et al. 23). Further, the analysis followed a “two-step” process in which “a confirmatory factor analysis model was estimated to assess the overall fit of the measurement model and association among model constructs,” and a structural model was used to test the hypothesized relationships (Kim et al. 23). The authors did, indeed, find that abuse predicted running away, which then predicted both juvenile delinquency and victimization.

Despite the fact that the authors proved their hypothesis, the method of data collection in this example is rather suspect. First, the authors used self-report data in order to gauge the level of child abuse, data that asked mothers to report the types of abuse that had been used against their children. In this type of data reporting, it would be incredibly easy for mothers to report incidents that had never occurred or fail to report incidents that had occurred. Further, the mother could have altered the type of incident that occurred. Second, the variables of abuse — physical, psychological, and sexual, are rather subjective. That is, some of what was considered abuse by the researchers may not be considered abuse for the general public, meaning that the results of the test were skewed. In order to remedy these problems, the researchers could have used medical reports or social services reports in order to gain data, in addition to using types of abuse that have been identified and recorded by an authority on the subject, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Having gained an appreciation for the vicious cycle that child abuse often generates and having understood the difficulties that researchers face when trying to measure child abuse and correlate it to other factors, I was interested in the connection between mothers and child abuse. When I read that mothers were abusing their children and reporting the instances of abuse themselves, I was curious as to what causes this kind of abuse. How could a mother abuse a child that she had given birth to? What factors were involved in mothers’ abuse of children, and how could they be rectified in order to prevent child abuse in the future? To answer this question, I chose to examine Taylor et al.’s “Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Stress, Nativity, and Risk for Maternal Maltreatment of Young Children.” The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between violence waged on mothers by their intimate partners, as well as other types of risk factors, with child abuse or child maltreatment. The authors achieved this through choosing a sample from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, which has collected information in 20 major cities in the United States since 1998 (Taylor et al. 175-176). The study sampled only mothers who had intimate partners, and who were mothers of three-year-olds between 2001 and 2004. Most often, the mothers’ partners were the children’s biological fathers (Taylor et al. 176). The variables for this study included child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, and other maternal risk factors. Child maltreatment was assessed using “mothers’ self-reported acts of psychological aggression, neglect, and spanking toward their children” (Taylor et al. 176). Psychological aggression was defined as shouting, yelling, screaming, swearing, cursing, threatening, and using derogatory terms toward children. Physical aggression was defined as shaking, hitting, spanking, paddling slapping, or punching, and neglect was considered leaving a child alone, refusing to tell a child that he or she was loved, being unable to feed or medically care for a child, and being too high or drunk to care for a child (Taylor et al. 176). Major stress, depression, and having considered an abortion were considered other maternal risk factors (Taylor et al. 176). The associations between these variables was tested with regression analysis, and the results indicated that “further integration of IPV and child maltreatment prevention and intervention efforts is warranted” (Taylor et al. 175).

While this study certainly highlights how mothers could become their children’s abusers, several statistical fallacies also occur with this study. For instance, mothers were, once again, asked to report the data themselves, suggesting the data could be skewed. Further, although the survey for this study was administered in both English and Spanish, the test was only administered in large cities. While this may help to increase the diverse population that was tested, it also discounts those mothers from rural areas. This is an entire population that is not being assessed. In addition, the authors’ definitions of what is considered abuse consider certain actions abuse that might not be considered abuse by bother members of society, in addition to omitting certain actions that might be considered abuse. For instance, sexual abuse is not studied, and physical types of abuse such as burning are left out or the definition. In addition, spanking is considered abuse, while certain members of society may not think that it is, indeed, abuse. This is also true about certain types of psychological abuse that the author mentions. While consistent shouting, hitting, and cursing may be psychological abuse, it is difficult to find a mother who has never shouted at her three-year-old. Finally, the sample of this study is far too narrow. While the previous study asked mothers to report data during early childhood, school age, and adolescence, this study only examined mothers with three-year-olds. As some suggest that violence against children tends to occur most often when the children are youngest, this could skew results. Thus, while this study does help give insight regarding how mothers could abuse their children, it is subject to the same fallacies as the first article dealing with abuse, running away, and victimization or delinquency.

Thus, having determined how child abuse affects children in adolescence and having received an answer to my question regarding what influences a mother to abuse her child, I wanted to examine the long-term affects of child abuse. That is, I wanted to determine whether or not the victims of child abuse suffered from various psychological issues during adulthood. While many articles tend to deal with the fact that victims of child abuse tend to become abusers, I wanted to go in another direction, looking at how child abuse can actually affect the life of the abused. In order to consider this, I contemplated Belik et al.’s study, “Relation Between Traumatic Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel.” In this article, the authors’ purpose wanted to “determine whether exposure to particular types of traumatic events was associated with suicide attempts in a representatives ample of active military personnel” (Beilik et al. 93). In order to test the connection between certain traumatic events and suicide attempts, the authors drew data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, which asked respondents to mark whether they had been victims of 28 different traumatic events during their lives. One of these events was child abuse. The survey was representative of such variables including sex, reserve or non-reserve member, rank, and region (Belik et al. 95). Because the interviewers collected the data on a face-to-face basis in private areas, it is likely to be representative of what actually happened in the military members’ lives. In order to measure the association between trauma and suicide attempts, the researchers used regression analysis and in concordance of Statistics Canada regulations (Beilik et al. 96). After completing this analysis, the researchers found that “sexual and other interpersonal traumas,” which include child abuse, were associated with men and women’s suicide attempts (Belik et al. 93).

Thus, this piece of research answered my question regarding what types of psychological issues are faced by the survivors of child abuse, suggesting that they are at a risk for suicide. While this study had the best population and method of collecting data among the three that I examined, it does not completely answer my question, however, because child abuse is just one event in a category entitled “interpersonal trauma.”

When viewing my research as a whole, I am stricken by its implications. These articles that child abuse is prevalent, and can lead to some serious trauma when children are both young and in their adult years. Child abuse can lead to adolescent running away, which, in turn, leads to victimization and delinquency on behalf of the student. Further, it can lead to suicide attempts when the child is older. The most important way to end this cycle, then, is to end child abuse, but this research has also led me to conclude this is much easier said than done. For instance, mothers abuse children not because they want to, but because of other factors that push them over the edge, such as abuse by an intimate partner. What can be seen from viewing these articles together is, first, that child abuse must be tackled before it occurs in order to give the child the best chance of a normal life. Second, it is clear that the research regarding child abuse must be improved to use different types of samples and data that can give more accurate results. While these articles did answer some of my questions about child abuse, such as why it occurs and what happens to its victims, they did not answer all of my questions. For instance, they did not answer my question about culture and child abuse, and even considered certain behaviors child abuse that others would argue are cultural. Thus, in order to answer my research question, further work must be commissioned in this field.

Works Cited

Belik, S., Stein, M.B., Amudson, G. JG., and Sareen, J. “Relation Between Traumatic

Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel.” La Revue canadienne de psychiatre. 54.2. (2009): 93-104.

Kim, Min Jung. Tajima, Emiko A., Herrenkohn, Todd I., and Huang, Bu. “Early Child

Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model.” Social Work Research. 13.1 (2009): 19-28.

Taylor, Catherine A., Guteman, Neil B., Lee, Shawna J. “Intimate Partner Violence,

Maternal Stress, Nativity, and Risk for Maternal Maltreatment of Young Children.” American Journal of Public Health. 99.1 (2009), 175-183.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper