The development of policy borrowing

Policy borrowing in general and political science, and then in the field of education.

This part introduces the development of policy borrowing in general and political science, while at the same time focusing more on borrowing in education policy. First, this essay will explain the definition of policy borrowing through the research of previous scholars. As the term “policy borrowing” is difficult to define, and many researchers have described it in different ways. In other words, they explain it through the macro aspects that focus more on “policy borrowing” agents. Oliver and Martin (2003) split policy borrowing into two ways, one of which is ‘ lesson drawing ‘ which implies ‘ a metaphor involved in influencing public sentiment and talking about social scientists to pay more attention to the dependent variable ‘ (Rose, 1993, p.27). This clarified that the learning aspect of whether or not to borrow their policies relies on the efficacy of what they do and on the causal relationship. The other is ‘ policy transfer ‘ which could explain the policy convergence (Holzinger and Knill, 2005). Globally, the policy applies to “a process in which knowledge of institutions, policies or delivery systems in one sector or at the level of governance is used in the development of institutions, policies or delivery systems in another sector or at the level of governance, has thus been common practice since the dawn of civilisation” (Evans, 2004, p. 1). Policy transfer is thus a process for government or institutions to exchange and promote advance policies among learning sides. Phillips and Ochs (2004a) make a description of this concerning education policy borrowing. They said’ educational policy borrowing’ is’ conscious adoption in one sense of policy found in another’ (p. 774) and a ‘clearly stated aim to follow a way of doing things observed elsewhere’ (p. 776). So it is an analysis and comparison of good policies amongst national governments, from the macro level to understand policy borrowing. It is prudent for education policy to study and implement advanced education system at home.


The above scholars researched the importance of policy borrowing, and they found that it is still at the emerging, particularly in the field of education. Education policy borrowing plays an essential role in the development of global education. Oliver and Martin (2003) said that policy borrowing would give policymakers a new perspective, pushing them to note and identify new phenomena and trends in the world.


Rose also stated in 1993 that it is essential to learn from past policies based on a multi-disciplinary capacity. Nevertheless, Dolowitz and Marsh (2003, p.3) have been more emphasised on “knowledge of policies, administrative arrangements, institutions and ideas in one political system in the development”. Such policy development is important for the development of education. The connection between policy borrowing and educational transition is that “policy borrowing takes place within a framework of educational transfer, from the forced transfer of knowledge to the voluntary acceptance of international instances, frameworks and discourses (Phillips and Ochs, 2004a, 2004b; Steiner-Khamsi, 2000).” In other terms, the borrowed sides will embrace the strategy but the learning sides are willing to borrow on their own. Therefore, in the borrowing of educational policy, the educational policies of the former are important because they are not only required to use them for their own, but have also been used for a long time and are already useful. Thus, these advanced policies are of great value to the learning side.




Why would the Chinese government want to borrow the British higher education system?


In particular, this section analyses the reasons for the Chinese government and the institution. There are many reasons to support the establishment of the UNNC. The reasons could be divided into two aspects, one based on rationality, and the other on coercive westernisation.


Voluntary action to borrow British education policy from Chinese universities


First, there is a huge cross-national attraction to Western education policy. This situation is caused by cultural hegemony and leadership in the field of education. As Phillips and Ochs (2003) mentioned the cross-national attraction of the four stages of policy borrowing, only the reference side has a good quality of education, other agents would like to study and borrow their prior experience or policy. That’s why they can extend their policies to other areas. For educational policy borrowing, Wadham, Pudsy and Boyd (2007) stressed the essential interplay between education policy and society’s culture. In other words, “culture shapes education, and education shapes culture (Wadham, Pudsy and Boyd, 2007, p.1)”. Also, Astiz and Baker (2013) highlight “the hegemonic influence of the western cultural account in social, political and economic institutions globally and even to explain many comparative education phenomena worldwide”. Similarly, Carney, Rappleye and Silova (2012) are developments in schooling in western countries. Thus, because Western education policies have a dominant position in culture and a leading position in the education system, Western education policies have a strong cross-national attraction to other countries or institutions.


In the West, especially UK universities for contemporary education in China, there is a clear cross-national attraction and this can be proven in many ways. Tan (2016, p.150) acknowledged that “there is strong evidence of cross-national attraction to Western philosophies, logics, strategies, models and procedures, whether in the fields of education, educational administration, curriculum material, pedagogy or evaluation.” In this situation, the British education system is always in the top position in the world. In the 2020 QS World University Ranking, the University of Nottingham ranking in the United Kingdom is 96, and the research output is ‘quite good’ in this world university ranking research. And UNUK, as one of the world’s top universities, attracts a lot of students and researchers to study here.


The University of Nottingham in United kingdom therefore has a strong educational advantage, and the Chinese government is willing to accept excellent and advanced education policies and curricula.


Second, the cooperative university appears in China for historical reasons. Many developing countries in Asia and elsewhere are also turning to Western countries for legitimacy, affirmation and inspiration. For research on Chinese comparative educational history, since the Qing Dynasty, China has been learning Western education policies (Tan, 2016). However, he (2016, p.21) criticised the policies of that time, “the borrowing was wholesale, unquestionable and detrimental to China’s traditions.” The previous copy was not useful, however, and all resolutions were filed at that time. Then the Chinese government began to study Soviet education policies because of “many basic similarities between the Soviet and traditional Chinese systems” (Tan, 2016, p. 22). Although it made such a move palatable, the Chinese education system always had to be rescued. Such observations have reinforced what Gonan (1998) and Ochs (2005) have said, that borrowing ideas and practices need to carry on their own interests and needs. And as China’s education system evolved in the twentieth century, the Chinese government abandoned the pattern of direct copying, so began to make its own improvements. In indigenisation in China, Yang (2005) found that good indigenisation should be paired with Chinese characteristics.

In summary, on the basis of the above historical reasons, the Chinese Government has learned lessons and has begun to look for a higher education system in conjunction with its own situation to set up a new education model in China. Nottingham University in Ningbo China has integrated western and eastern policies, which have developed a transnational university. UNNC is the result of the reflection and implementation of the localisation of the western higher education system in China.


Finally, when studying policy borrowing subjects, it was found that the change in agents led to the decentralisation of education policy. This change makes the policy borrowing not only a regional decision but also a greater autonomy for schools and local governments to choose their policies and develop them. As far as policy borrowing is concerned, many scholars have studied it at global level, and policy borrowing agents are important to research. Mark and Jonathan (1999 p.367) said that “the policy borrowing category is in the global, international, transnational and domestic structure.” And there’s a general borrowing policy between the international. As the globalisation process accelerates, new economic, political and social environments emerge, thereby changing the state power situation and leading to the right of local and institutional borrowing (Rosenau, 1990; Mann, 1997).

Nonetheless, the criteria of the migration are stringent, first of all, they need to identify the borrowing policies that have been enforced very well internally and have the qualification for international transfer. Since 2004, Betsill and Bulkelay research has shown that, due to internal factors such as globalisation and decentralisation, state and local government agencies also considered to be important agents of policy borrowing. In other words, colleges or organisations have greater autonomy to determine whether or not to change policies. The UNNC also insists on international educational policies borrowing that make use of the British education system in Chinese society.


Agents from two countries are an institution and are also supported by the governments of the United Kingdom and China. The Ningbo Government played a very important role in the process of setting up the UNNC. For the local government of Ningbo, the loss of talent and lack of universities and other reasons make the Ningbo government strongly willing to cooperate with Nottingham University and open an overseas campus in China. As a part of the decentralisation of power and the policy reform of the Chinese Ministry of Education, the Ningbo Government has the right to introduce the British education system and the University of Nottingham in Ningbo China.


Coercive westernisation: internal reasons for the need to borrow British education policy in China.


First, for reasons of policy borrowing, the process of globalisation needs to be considered for the internal reasons that China needs to learn from the Births Education System. Mark and Jonathan (1999) found globalisation to be the main reason for government borrowing and transition. As Dolowitz and Marsh (2000) research, technological developments increase communication between policymakers. At the same period, Evans concluded in 2004 that “this is essentially the result of the field of public policy being increasingly small owing to dramatic changes in global political and economic institutional structures and to the nation-states themselves.” Thus, several researchers have already shown that globalisation is the main reason why financial borrowing is taking place all over the world. In fact, in a globalised competitive economy, countries mimic productive rivals to enhance their international competitiveness (Cerny, 1997).


In summary, because of globalisation, the Chinese government needs to adopt a new economic, political and social environment. Because China is on the road of successful change and rapid development, it is difficult not to establish its own education system, which is why it will accept the new British education policy. The University of Nottingham in Ningbo China is in line with the development of globalisation in China. The Ministry of Education of China had published a regulation to support the development of Chinese higher education system, which is Chinese-foreign cooperation education’s regulation (2003) This is why the Chinese government strongly supports the establishment of The University of Ningbo China.




Instead, because some internal system issues can not be fixed on their own, agents would like to borrow from other advanced policies to address or develop. In the field of educational policy borrowing, more researchers regarded the motives for borrowing education policy as internal reasons. In 2004 Steiner-Khamsi researched American education policies at home in contrast with other nations, thinking that current education in the United States is glorifying, does not need to improve or adapt from others. However, not all comparative researchers have agreed with the education policy of their own countries, such as Gonon(1998), Halpin and Troyna (1995). Still, they all prefer to legitimise the adoption of educational policy reform in their own countries. Because of their internal factors in the phase of the educational revolution, policymakers and academics want to make some changes.

As a consequence, owing to some issues on the academic side, they are willing to receive or pass advanced strategies. This is the main point posed by Dolowitz and Marsh in 2000, who offer further information about the explanations for the government borrowing. This is due to the increased demand from the global competition cycle to force other agents towards aggressive westernisation. In other words, to catch up with the rapid development of other countries, some countries need to learn advanced policies and, of course, sometimes this is an act of forced progress.

There are many explanations for the internal factors which contribute to the pre-requisite and the reasons for borrowing. Tan (2016) causing them in several sections, such as’ political changes, discontent with main education stakeholders in the local education sector,’ and external factors would also affect creativity in education policy borrowing, such as’ unsatisfactory eternal evaluation in international assessment (PISA) and economic competition.” In this situation, the internal education policy can not suit China’s fast-growing economy and society. Throughout Mainland China, gaining inspiration from progressive Uk education policy, it is a kind of challenge to the New Curriculum Reform in 21st century. The NCR is based on the 2001 text, which seeks a mechanism to’ meet the demands of quality-oriented education’ in Mainland China (Tan, 2016, p.29). As Steiner-Khamsi (2006) studied the NCR education system in China, NCR employs and favours exam-oriented education rather than quality-oriented education. In other terms, it has not been able to adapt to the’ developmental requirements of the times’ in contemporary China. As a result, China as a “developing country does not always have the resources to tackle the problems it faces and therefore searches beyond the agency to other governments or non-governmental organisations for answers to the problems” (Evans 2004, p.3).

Moreover, following the reform of the education system of the NCR, the Chinese government has not reformed and innovated the education system to a large extent. Thus, the new cooperative university was established in 2004 by the Chinese government and the British university. Since British universities are more concentrated on quality-oriented higher education, therefore, this government borrowing remains primarily based on a rational process in the ways, as this mechanism also needs to learn from successful examples to develop efficient national development or reconstruction planning and programming.

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why choose our academic writing service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently





Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper