Smoking does not cause lung cancer; however, it is highly correlated.
Throughout the years, research has been used to show that cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. However, the same researchers clearly points out that only 14% of lung cancer cases result from cigarette smoking. This begs the question, what causes the remaining 86% of lung cancer cases? To bring out this more clearly, our attention is taken by the fact that despite making smokers ten times higher at risk of getting lung cancer compared to non smokers, smoking is only seen as a catalyst for lung cancer cases and it is not the main cause of this kind of cancer (Shopland 1982). In the United Kingdom, research shows that one out every four people dying of cancer related deaths is a smoker. The same research from the U.K goes ahead to say that smoking only accounts for a small percentage of 20 of all cancer related deaths. Through these researches, researchers say that “Smoking is by far the most important preventable cause of cancer in the world”. Furthermore, researchers from the U.K and the U.S illustrate that it is plain to see that there is a higher reason of lung cancer compared to smoking (Ojeda 2002).
Cancer/Death Cases Resulting from Smoking
Smoking, having been eliminated as the core reason for lung cancer, is responsible for other types of cancer and constitutes the highest rate of fatality in the world today. In the U.K alone, smoking is reported to take lives five times more the number of people dying from murder, road accidents, HIV, overdoses as well as suicide put together. According to Cigarette smoking and cancer question and answers (2004), some of the cancers that are associated with cigarette smoking are cancers of liver, stomach, esophagus, larynx, bladder, bowel, pharynx, leukemia, kidney, breast, cervix as well as pancreases’. Despite all these fatal cases that are associated with smoking, they can all be prevented if one chooses to quit smoking.
Another fact that is coming out clearly from research is that not all smokers eventually die out of cancer; however, many of them die in their middle age (Egendorf 2001). The reason that has been given for this is that having been established that smoking is not the core reason for cancer, it greatly increases the risk of getting cancer, which eventually leads to their deaths. In order to understand how smoking causes cancer, it is important to understand that one stick of cigarette contains tobacco that is made up of substances that have been known to cause cancer. Studies show that one stick of cigarette constitutes of slightly more than seventy of these substances. Upon smoking, these substances enter into the human body and get deposited into the lungs. From there, they get distributed all over the body and science shows that they contain certain chemicals that alter the different gene patterns that result into cancerous cells that cause cancer. This gives the answer to where the 86% of cancer cases come from, genes.
The 15q24 Susceptibility Locus
Having found out that gene causes the remaining 86% of cancer related deaths, researchers went ahead to study how genes and cancer are related. The question then becomes, “what specific genetic factors are involved in an increased risk of lung cancer?” Several groups of scientists carried out research programs to try and answer this question. In their research, they discovered a chromosome, which they referred to as chromosome 15, which is highly mutable (Shopland 1982). Once those seventy or so substances enter the lungs and spread all over the body, the end result is the interference of the DNA and result into changed gene patterns. Chromosome 15, out of its high mutability factor, due to the changed gene patterns becomes mutated and in turn intensifies the risk a smoker stands of getting lung cancer. This is significant since the risk of getting lung cancer is increased from 30% to 80%. In addition to this, the scientists’ talks of a general 20-23% lung cancer risk if the smoker undergoes this mutation. However, this is dependent of whether the smoker has either one or two copies of the 15q24 susceptibility locus (Egendorf 2001). By definition, a susceptibility locus, based on numerical evidence, is an area where mutations of one or more genes are affected in the chromosome and are thought to be present.
The findings derived from these studies by one group show that there is a strong relationship between lung cancer and the varied 15q24 locus. In addition to this, the findings also show a strong relationship between the varied 15q24 locus and the number of cigarettes an individual smokes on a daily average (Ojeda 2002). The conclusion derived from the latter findings brings the argument that nicotine dependence and lung cancer form the basis of genetics. To understand this clearly, genes play a major role in why people become addicts to tobacco as well as lung cancer development in individuals. The other groups show that in addition to gene being central in cigarette smoking as well as cancer developments, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) difference is strongly interrelated with risks associated with lung cancer. Their conclusion shows that for smokers with the SNP genotype, their risk of developing lung cancer is much higher than those with other genotypes (Shopland 1982). The much difference between the first group and the second is seen in the argument that the second group of scientists present. In their argument, these scientists believed that the varied genes that were found on the 15q24 locus were highly seen to play a contributory role in lung cancers where presence of nicotine acetylcholine was evident and this was the stimulant for growth of tumors that caused lung cancer contrary to the belief that nicotine addiction was as a result of indirect casual role.
In order to prove that lung cancer was not only the resultant effect of smoking, a test was conducted to prove that even nonsmokers run a risk of lung cancer. In this study, it became apparent that the varied 15q24 locus still had the same role to play in nonsmokers, though in a lower proportion compared to smokers. In this study, the researchers were able to prove that nicotine addiction was not the casual role for lung cancer and that the relationship that exists between lung cancer and genes is direct (Ojeda 2002).
Although how it happens still remains a mystery to many scientists, researches are still being conducted to find out more of this relationship between cancer and smoking. Battle of facts still rages on between scientists on whether or not lung cancer and 15q24 susceptibility locus is directly related and findings show that smokers with SNV genotype run a greater risk of developing lung cancer (Egendorf 2001). These findings also show that even though an individual may not be a carrier to this type of variation, they are still prone to this type of disease and everybody is at risk, however, more to smokers compared to nonsmokers and concludes by stating that with or without this variation, smoking increases the risk of lung cancer ten times more than in those who do not smoke.
Cigarette smoking and cancer question and answers..(2004). Bethesda, Md.: National Institute
of Health, National Cancer Institute.
Egendorf, L. K. (2001). Smoking. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press.
Ojeda, A. (2002). Smoking. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.
Shopland, D. R. (1982). The Health consequences of smoking: cancer : a report of the Surgeon
General.. Rockville, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health
Service, Office on Smoking and Health ; Washington, D.C. : For sale by the Supt. Of
Docs., U.S. G.P.O..
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!