perceptions of Interlink Language Center students towards explicit and implicit grammar teaching and the implications for the most effective grammar teaching strategy for students. It is the opinion of the author that the decision whether or not to teach the subject of grammar as an extracted focus of ELT/ESL (English Language Teaching) (English as a Second Language) or passively as an inductive, integrated topic depends upon the class that one is teaching depends upon the theoretical approach that one takes to the subject matter. In other words, with the evidence to date both explicit and implicit approaches have validity and effect upon the teaching of language skills to students.
The first set of articles will examine a pro-intrinsic position. In Larry Lynch’s article on the subject, it certainly appears that if we follow the theoretical trail blazed by the likes of Boas, Jespersen and Chomsky, the intrinsic approach is simply the best way to go. This is due to there being two ways to learn languages, that is, acquisition and learning. Essentially, acquisition is “picking up” the language by “ear” and learning is picking it up by “knowing the rules. ” the student’s native language/languages (if the person grows up in a bilingual home) are picked up via acquisition while subsequent languages are by learning the grammar explicitly. While ideally, they should learn a language by immersion to mimic the effects of youthful ability to easily learn, this is not completely possible. As Lynch points out, not everything about languages and grammar is logical. Some things simply require rot memorization, especially irregular rules (Lynch).. However, the “open source code” as this approach was called in the introduction needs basic programming before it can be used to pick up languages and the more programming, the better. In the European Journal of Psychology of Education Silvia Gasparini published a study that countered explicit models that were based upon the transmission of formal grammatical rules. This was done by the consideration of informal behavior as the basis of learning and . Secondly, the author found that implicit learning evidence helped to build efficient learning environments by the indication of minimally invasive educational tools to help learners initial manipulation of the linguistic data. Reflection and intention which are part of explicit thinking are activated later (Gasparini 203-204). In a study published at the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society in 2004, the authors used e-mail texts written by students of known personality types. The stratified corpus of comparison of texts made use of n-gram-based techniques from statistical natural language processing. This was compared to relative frequencies of the use of parts-of-speech. Implicitness effects were found and neuroticism appeared to have a clearer impact than extraversion upon implicit language acquisition (Oberlander, and Gill 1038 — 1039).
Finally, in a journal article in Speech Communication, the authors tested ideas about universality and time course of vocal emotion processing with fifty English student listeners. They performed an emotional priming task in order to determine whether they implicitly recognized the emotional meanings of prosody (intonation) when exposed to a foreign language. The results indicated that English listeners automatically detected the emotional significance of the prosody when expressed in the foreign language. This would support implicit language acquisition (Pell, and Skorup 528 — 529).
Criterion B-Neutral-Explicit or Implicit
What follows are a set of articles that seek to investigate the validity of both explicit and implicit methodology. This conversation is continued by Virginia Scott in her article in the French Review from 1990 where she details explicit and implicit methods of learning languages. She compares them side by side and finds that while the value of explicit training is clear, the jury is still out on implicit learning of language (Scott 783-785). In an article by Pazaver and Wang in the International Journal of Language Society and Culture indicates that it is not just important to study the actual results of explicit vs. implicit learning with regard to language acquisition. In the study, 16 students were interviewed in groups. The results shewed that while the students were from similar cultural and educational backgrounds in Asia, the students’ perceptions of instruction varied widely. These different perspectives were based upon their language learning experiences from the past, their language proficiency, their current academic needs, and also their future career choices. To bridge the gap, the teachers engaged in dialogue with the students to determine the best ways to engage the students individually (Pazaver, and Wang 35).
In a study in the International Journal of English Studies, the authors used ELT materials in order build of a reliable instrument to help in the potential for the promotion of implicit and explicit components in ESL learning by students. The found that implicitness and explicitness were promoted equally by the ESL teaching units in three different textbooks (Criado Sanchez, Sanchez Perez, and Cantos Gomez 129). In an article in the journal of Applied Linguistics, R.W. Schmidt analyzes issues that impact upon explicit learning modalities. He concludes that subliminal language learning is impossible. Also, he notes that it is a necessary and sufficient condition for the conversion of input to intake. On the other hand, incidental learning, is both possible and effective when the tasks demands focus attention on the subject to be learned. Paying attention likely facilitative and could be necessary if adult learners are to acquire redundant grammatical features. Implicit learning may be a facilitative effect for conscious understanding. However, accounting for phenomenon of implicit learning may mean abandonment of the notion of unconscious ‘rules’ usually assumed in applied linguistics. More work has to be done according to the author in analyzing implicit learning (Schmidt 129-130).
Finally, we examine extrinsic methodology alone. Further, in a study published in the journal of Canadian Social Science, the authors attempt to enhance explicit learning of grammar using what they called “throw away” grammatical materials, that is one time only exercises. The found that such a teaching approach an effective means that brought reduced stress and helped build the students’ self-confidence in their learning of English grammar (Suppiah, Subramaniam, and Subrayan 167-168).
In a study in the journal of Language Teaching Research, the author examined the effectiveness of explicit instruction upon second language (L2) learners’ implicit and explicit knowledge of English. The study elicited assessed acquisition, elicited imitation, oral production, grammatical judgment, and metalinguistic knowledge. A pretest and two post tests were done immediately and six weeks after the exercise. Permanent effects for explicit instruction were documented on measures of implicit knowledge and also upon non-grammatically supplied items on their measures of explicit subjects. The study authors felt that further research could illuminate the effects of implicit methods upon L2 acquisition (Akakura 9, 37) .
Despite numerous studies under numerous conditions and qualifications, it still appears that implicit and explicit language learning both have significant if not to equal significance. However, continuing studies need to be done to qualify if certain controllable factors or circumstances might change this. In that case, either approach might be valid for a subgroup.
Akakura, Motoko. “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit L2
knowledge.” Language Teaching Research. 16.1 (2012): 9 — 37.
Criado Sanchez, Raquel, Aquilano Sanchez Perez, and Pascual Cantos Gomez. “An Attempt to Elaborate a Construct to Measure the Degree of Explicitness and Implicitness in ELT
Materials.” International Journal of English Studies. 10.1 (2010): 103-129.
Gasparini, Silvia. “Implicit vs. Explicit Learning: Some Implications for L2 Teaching.” luiropcait
Journal of Psychology of Education. 19.2 (2004): 203-219.
Lynch, Larry. “Grammar Teaching: Implicit or Explicit?.” ESL Bas: Teach English. ESL Base, 2012.
Web. 19 Feb 2012. .
Oberlander, Jon, and Alastair J. Gill. “Individual Differences and Implicit Language: Personality, Parts-of-Speech and Pervasiveness.” Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive
Science Society. 2004. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA, 2004. 1035 — 1040. Print.
Pazaver, Anne, and Hong Wang. “Asian Students’ Perceptions of Grammar Teaching in the ESL
Classroom.” International Journal of Language Society and Culture. 27. (2009): 27-35.
Pell, Marc D., and Vera Skorup. “Implicit Processing of Emotional Prosody in a Foreign vs. Native
Language.” Speech Communication. 50. (2008): 519 — 530.
Scott, Virginia. “Explicit and Implicit Grammar Teaching Strategies.” French Review. 63.5 (1990):
Schmidt, Richard W. “The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning.” Applied Linguistics.
11.2 (1990): 129-158.
Suppiah, Puspalata C, Sathiyaperba Subramaniam, and Angelina Subrayan . “From Trash to Treasure:
Grammar Practice for the Malaysian ESL Learners.” Canadian Social Science. 7.5 (2011): 167-
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