Inter-agency collaboration within health care is cited as an important strategy for reforms in health care. Research has shown that collaboration within the health care results to improved patient outcomes. Examples include reduction of preventable adverse drug reactions, decrease rates of morbidity and mortality rates and reduction of medical costs(Bosch, & Mansell, 2015). Teamwork within health care has also depicted a reduction of extra work and results in increased rates of job satisfaction. Inter-agency collaboration is also known as inter-professional, multi-agency, integrated collaboration involves three principles these are information sharing, coordinated intervention and joint decision making (Maslin-Prothero, & Bennion, 2010). A number of countries such as Scotland are currently embracing the idea of integrating programs to a range of public services. Over the years, there are policies that are in place designed to promote the integration of health care services. The idea was brought up due to rising criticisms of both social and health care and increased demand for social services and high rates of health care costs. As a result, there were a number of systems and structures in Scotland that were designed to promote and integrate working such as Local-Healthcare Co-operative (Richardson, & Asthana,2005). The programs were established to increase the scalability of partners that work in health and voluntary agencies. The Community Care and Health Scotland 2002 enable local authorities to work in unison. Scotland, compared to other countries has also developed a framework that enhances collaboration between health care and social services (Burgess, 2016). Further, factors that enhance integration include changes in models of health and social care that results in increased pressure on social care services. Majority of the older adults use hospital services when compared to the rest of the population. Integration of these services can help in reducing unnecessary admission and delays. Further, it effectively and efficiently increases the use of limited resources and plays an important role in improving patient outcomes and patient services to users. The Cabinet Secretary for Health Wellbeing and cities announced the government’s plan to integrate adult and social care in 2011. The bill was designed to improve quality and consistency f services for the patients and their families and also for the provision of a seamless and improved quality in social and health care services for the older people (Burgess, 2016). The Public Bodies Act of 2014 created integrations authorities that placed a requirement for the NHS boards that requires the integrations of health and social care budgets. The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of interagency working within health care and critically examines how health and social care integration enhances person-centered care for the vulnerable in society.
According to Bruce, & Parry, (2015) western countries are challenged on how best they can cope with aging populations. In Scotland for instance, in the next 10 years, it is estimated that there will be 25% increase of people aged 75 years and above and this translates to increased use of health and social care services. According to the study, the Scottish government created a manifesto in the year 2011 that is designed to deliver single integrated systems of both health and social care. The Scottish Health Secretary informed the government’s plan to integrate both adult health and secure care. In the systems, Scotland’s Community Health Partnerships would be replaced by the Health and Social Care Partnership. The Joint Scotland Act received a Royal Assent, that put forward the framework that could integrate health and social care in Scotland. The statutory resulted in 14 territorials,32 local authorities, 31 shadow health, and social care partnerships and 32 local authorities. The success of the joint working in Scotland would help adults look after and improve their own health and well being. Individuals including those with disabilities are able to live independently and reasonable and also work within their community (Bruce, & Parry,2015). Integration would help to reduce health inequalities, maintain the quality of life of these people, ensure that health and social care services are safe from harm and engage people within the health care thus improving information, support, care, and treatment. Resources are efficiently and effectively providing health and social care services.
Adult social services greatly impact on children and young people; this is because children tend to rely on these services in different ways. Stephen, Lerpiniere, Young, & Welch, (2015) illustrates this by subdividing into four groups these are young carers, young people that transition to adult services, young people who leave care and families that were cared for by adults. The author depicts how health and social services impacts on the lives of the children. For example, young people transition to adult services and a number of children are associated with chronic health conditions and are able to survive to adulthood. These young people require health and social care services which will enable them to lead their lives to adult members of the society. Research shows that 17,000 children are associated with a learning disability and would require support services when they become adults. Children are also associated with the provision of care and support to their family members. Young people are faced with additional needs as they are required to care with their relatives with long term illness which gives them a burden and additional responsibilities (Stephen, Lerpiniere, Young, & Welch, )2015. The 2010-2015) Young Care Strategy in Scotland defined young care as a young person under the age of 18 that plays a significant role in caring for adults experiencing illness and disability. Young cares also care for disabled adults parents, grandparents, and disabled siblings.Availability of integrated services helps respond to the needs of the families. Scotland established Young Careers Authorization Card that promotes the visibility of the young cares and helps them access services that they require. The young persons are also able to identify with service providers and access information of the health persons they care.
Integration of adult social and health care services in a number of domains contributes to the safety of children and wellbeing. Children are a vulnerable group especially in situations where their families experience long term problems such as poverty, poor housing, parental and mental health and substance abuse( Scottish Government,2013b). Children whose parents use drugs and alcohol are at risk of poor outcomes in different areas of their lives. Children whose parents are associated with schizophrenia are at risk of poor social networks, increased dropout rates in school and increased rates of depression. Ill adults are aware of various negative effects on their children. An interagency social and health care service benefits such families as they provide support for those family members. For instance, those adults that suffer from mental illness these services help their children express and discuss their concerns. Collaboration enhances effective support to these children and helps them cope with the parent’s illness (Petch, 2013). The services can support the children of ill parents such as educating them. Substance abuse during pregnancy is able to provide adults with preconception support and pregnancy support that helps in reducing harm. Adult services play an important role in the identification of these children and ensuring that they receive the support that they require. Children of disabled adults are also able to contact the adult services and these services benefit from a coordinated approach.Also, children from these families do not experience love and affection and there is a need to provide them with appropriate support. In Scotland, the National Guidance for Child Protection provides lists the responsibilities that adults and social care service are involved in promoting the well being of children (Scottish Government, 2013). The Scottish governments stipulate that the services should be aware of the needs of the children and ensure the children are safe. The services provided include accident and emergency services, addiction services, maternity services, and adult support services.
Interagency collaboration helps deal with challenges associated with inequalities among adults. The Change Fund was concluded in the year 2015 and the Scottish government was able to introduce an Integrated Care Fund worth 300 million Euros that enables the Integration authorities in the prevention of early intervention approach to all adults and strengthened their care to tackle cases of inequalities among adults. The government also provided guidance on the use of Integrated Care Fund .The fund is used to encourage investment in intervention and preventive supports and for adults that are associated with multi-morbidity by focusing on personal outcomes. The fund is also intended to support health illiteracy and adopt a co-production approach by use of technologies that enhance the issue of greater choice and control. The guidance also provides the important role of the voluntary sector in ensuring that individuals can better control their lives and develop capacity and confidence that ensures self-management.
The interagency approach also ensures that those adults with chronic conditions are catered for. The Many Conditions One Life which is a national multi-morbidity plan and the The Community Care and Health Scotland provides a network of people that live with certain conditions that are supported through the Joint Improvements Team to develop a plan that outlines how an Integrated Care Fund is used to support adults with certain chronic conditions to live and to obtain an experienced and well coordinated and integrated care (Hendry, Taylor, Mercer, & Knight, 2016). The services are able to provide collaborative conversations between the person and health acre professionals and focus on the outcomes that matter to the individual. It also results in improved coordination and continuity of care for adults with chronic conditions. The service provides planned support for the needs of this individual in the whole pathway between their home and hospital and refers them to a specialist closer to their home area. Research shows that multi-morbidity increases with age, Scotland is at risk of multi-morbidity because more people are over the age of 65 years. Health has not also improved among the aged and also increased case of inequality which is on increase. In 2008 the government of Scotland created a Ministerial Taskforce on Healthy Inequality (Hendry, Taylor, Mercer, & Knight, 2016).The program was aimed at developing social capital that is focused on people between the age of 15 to 44 and Place Standards that are designed to improve the living conditions of the adults. The Joint Working in Scotland Act required integrations to reduce health inequalities and also improve the outcomes of individuals through an integrated health approach and social care.
According to (Alex B, B., & Allison, 2018) interagency collaboration improves the health, well being and quality of care, that are reflected in national health and well-being outcomes of integrations. The achievement of these outcomes is associated with challenges such as delays in assessing services. People tend to resort to hospitals as opposed to ongoing services that would help the individuals better their lives and leave the hospital with the right support. Inequalities also prevent these individuals from managing their health. Interagency services tend to help in promoting a health and quality life as opposed to the treatment of care, this strategy is recognized as a way that improves care. Integration also improves care for the adults because their services are usually planned and delivered together thus resulting in improvement in efficiency and help Scotland manage incased demand and sustainability of their health care and social services. Coordination is also associated with an improved shared understanding that ensures fundamental changes occur within health care.
The literature review provides evidence that helps us understand how the integration of health and social care services positively impacts on the health care outcomes of Adults in Scotland. Interagency collaboration results in improved healthcare outcomes among adults. Scotland government has put in place various strategies that are aimed at ensuring social and health care services are integrated. Some of the legislative Acts in place include Local-Healthcare Co-operative, The Community Care and Health Scotland, The Community Care and Health Scotland and the Joint Commission Act of 2014. Also, there are organizational budgetary arrangements that are designed to curb the challenges of inequality. The study also provides ways in which young children are affected when the adults are ill and the way adult care services help in improving the well being of these children. Integrations of services are an idea that should be recommended on a global scale especially in developing countries.
Bosch, B., & Mansell, H. (2015). Interprofessional collaboration in health care: Lessons to be learned from competitive sports. Canadian pharmacists journal: CPJ = Revue des pharmaciens du Canada: RPC, 148(4), 176–179. doi:10.1177/1715163515588106
Maslin-Prothero, S. E., & Bennion, A. E. (2010). Integrated team working: a literature review. International journal of integrated care, 10, e043.
Richardson, S., & Asthana, S. (2005). Inter-agency information sharing in health and social care services: the role of professional culture. British Journal of Social Work, 36(4), 657-669
Burgess, L. (2016). SPICe Briefing Integration of Health and Social Care. Retrieved from http://www.parliament.scot/ResearchBriefingsAndFactsheets/S5/SB_16-70_Integration_of_Health_and_Social_Care.pdf
Bruce, D., & Parry, B. (2015). Integrated care: a Scottish perspective. London journal of primary care, 7(3), 44–48. doi:10.1080/17571472.2015.11494376
Stephen, J., Lerpiniere, J., Young, E., & Welch, V. (2015). Integrating Health and Social Care in Scotland: Potential impact on children’s services. Study Findings, Report, 2.
McGhee, K., Lerpiniere, L., Welch, V., Graham, P., & Harkin, B. (2014). Throughcare and Aftercare Services in Scotland’s Local Authorities: A National Study. Glasgow: CELCIS. http://www.celcis.org/media/resources/publications/Throughcare-and-aftercare-inscotlands-local-authorities.pdf
Petch, A. (2013). Delivering integrated care and support. Glasgow: ADSW and IRISS. http:/
Scottish Government. (2013b). Getting Our Priorities Right: Updated good practice guidance for all agencies and practitioners working with children, young people and families affected by problematic alcohol and/or drug use. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/04/2305/downloads
Hendry, A., Taylor, A., Mercer, S., & Knight, P. (2016). Improving outcomes through transformational health and social care integration-The Scottish experience. Healthcare Quarterly, 19(2), 73-79.
Alex B, B., & Allison, T. (2018). Leading across health and social care in Scotland. Retrieved from https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/default/files/2018-07/Scottish_officers_full_final.pdf
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH GRADE VALLEY TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT