Industry Report Waste Management

Waste & Environment Management

SPELT Analysis

Market Segmentation

Major Competitors & Market Share

Porter’s 5 Forces


Strategic Recommendations

The waste management industry is segmented in terms of customer — both the payer and the type of waste are means by which the industry is segmented. While the demand conditions are relatively stable, the political and social environments are both important because they are driving trends in waste treatment, in the sorting and separating of waste and in waste re-use.

The waste management industry is diffuse, with thousands of players, most of them small and regional. Municipalities still account for 23% of the industry, managing their own waste. This creates significant opportunity in privatization. There are otherwise two major players, WMI and Republic, and after than the companies are either small or niche market specialists (medical waste, for example). The industry is highly regulated so companies with specialized competency are somewhat insulated from competition by their knowledge and technology.

The companies that operate in waste management are financially healthy in general. The stable demand helps to ensure profitability. Some companies are more aggressive in their approach to growth, while others remain conservative. Going forward, however, the advantages of scale are going to be more prevalent in the industry than in the past, because of the importance of technology. As a consequence, it is expected that there will be consolidation in the industry going forward.

There are also opportunities overseas, as scale becomes more important, in addition to ongoing privatization. So waste management companies can grow if they want, and it is recommended that firms in the industry pursue multiple avenues for growth in the coming years in order to return value to shareholders.

The waste management industry is segmented in terms of the types of customer. The customer types are residential, commercial, industrial, and municipal. Businesses within the solid waste industry are collection, landfill, transfer and recycling (Waste Management Inc. 2013 Annual Report). Most companies in the industry work on multi-year contracts to handle one or more of these functions for their customers. Water supply and sewage treatment is a related industry, and air pollution control is another. In some jurisdictions, waste management is handled by a municipality, while in other areas this function is privatized, or run with a public-private partnership. Industry analysis from IBIS World estimates the value of the waste collection services market at $43 billion in the United States, and the Waste Treatment and Disposal business at a further $17 billion. Both of these business are diffuse, characterized by a large number of players, but there are some large companies that have national or regional strength in each business.

SPELT Analysis

The SPELT analysis takes a look at the industry through the social, political, economic, legal and technological lenses. The social trends driving waste management include greater sensitivity to the issue of waste. This has driven growth in recycling businesses in particular, and perhaps slowed the growth of landfills. That slowing is probably offset by increases in population and overall consumption. Consumers might think that they want to waste less, but in most places they still waste a lot. However, the recycling business is a major growth business within the industry, largely because of consumer demand for greater recycling. The other social issue is population growth, and the steady growth of the U.S. population has provided ample opportunity for growth in the waste industry since each person contributes a certain amount of waste per year, and every single person does it.

The political element is highly important for waste management. Many contracts are at the municipal level, and this includes residential and commercial contracts. For the most part, these contracts offer exclusivity for waste services in a municipality. This means that it is highly important for any company operating in this industry to be able to work closely with government. Meeting the needs of government is how contracts are acquired and maintained. In some cases, governments face the choice between maintaining municipal services that they run themselves or switching to a private contractor. The trend towards the use of private contractors is driven by efficiency and cost concerns — in particular the high costs associated with union labor make cities nervous, and the threat of garbage strikes does as well. That said, government is also responsible for creating the regulations under which the waste management industry operates. The industry needs to work with government to ensure that regulation is aligned with the needs of all stakeholders and has been based on sound research and facts. Public sentiment — the social dimension — often drives the political environment as well, so the two can be closely connected.

In some ways, the waste management business is recession-proof, because most consumption (i.e. industry demand) is basically fixed (Steverman, 2008). While it is argued in the text that the industry is driven by gross U.S. economic output, it is best to remember that most that output is going to be there year over year — a recession might reduce total output by 1-2% and not all of that output reduction is going to affect solid waste levels. Thus, there is a constant need for waste management capacity even during economic slowdowns. The state of the economy can affect, however, the price that customers are willing to pay. There is competition in most markets and as a result there might be bidding wars if customers need to drive down costs in order to balance their books. Public budgets in particular are affected by recession because they are affected by changes to the tax base. For waste management companies, economic slowdown increase the risks that municipal customers in particular are likely to bargain down on price.

The legal environment is closely related to the political, since the politicians make the laws. There are a number of regulatory bodies that can affect the legal environment in which waste management firms operate. The overarching federal body is the Environmental Protection Agency, which enforces many statutes with regards to waste handling and disposal. The regulations with respect to household and routine commercial waste are not especially tough, but medical and industrial waste handling come with very strict regulations in order to preserve the safe handling of the more dangerous forms of waste.

The EPA enforces the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which governs the handling of solid waste material. The RCRA provides the legal framework for the handling of all manner of waste, from dead animals in agriculture to inorganic chemicals to medical waste and all manner of hazardous waste. For example, certain things must be disposed of in an incinerator, while other things can end up in the landfill. There are no strict rules regarding mandatory recycling but there are definitely some guidelines that companies can work with as to what should be recycled and how that recycling can be handled.

The final element of the SPELT analysis is technology. Technology is rapidly changing in some areas of waste management. These changes are being driven by the social and political dimensions, where it is becoming important to minimize the amount of waste, and to maximize the amount of “garbage” that is diverted back to productive purposes. Technologies are being developed to handle solid waste keeping these objectives in mind. Some technological advances that have transformed waste management include anaerobic digestion, which is one of the best ways to dispose of biological waste; conversion to energy, which not only disposes of waste but provides economic opportunity to waste management companies; zero waste technologies, which seek to repurpose all waste so that nothing is diverted to a landfill. Improvements to sorting technology have made it easier to sort out different types of waste for diversion as well (Capel, 2014).

Market Segmentation

The waste management industry is segmented in terms of the types of customer. The customer types are residential, commercial, industrial, and municipal. Businesses within the solid waste industry are collection, landfill, transfer and recycling (Waste Management Inc. 2013 Annual Report). Most companies in the industry work on multi-year contracts to handle one or more of these functions for their customers. Water supply and sewage treatment is a related industry, and air pollution control is another. In some jurisdictions, waste management is handled by a municipality, while in other areas this function is privatized, or run with a public-private partnership. Industry analysis from IBIS World estimates the value of the waste collection services market at $43 billion in the United States, and the Waste Treatment and Disposal business at a further $17 billion. Both of these business are diffuse, characterized by a large number of players, but there are some large companies that have national or regional strength in each business.

Markets are not segmented by demographics. The people who make the decisions come from a wide range of backgrounds, and waste is generated by everybody. The types of customers have already been identified above, and to these a number of niches can be added such as military, industrial, medical and agricultural. These types of customers are also subject to unique legislation under RCRA. So the way that this industry is segmented is in part by customer type, in part by legislation and in part by waste type. Some firms will specialize in certain types of waste or certain types of customers, while larger firms might operate in a number of industries.

Customers generally have simple needs. They need the company to remove the waste and to do so at a reasonable cost. The basic removal of waste is one of the simpler tasks for a waste management company in most instances. This provides these companies with something of a luxury — customers do not care that much about what happens to the waste once is in possession of the waste management company. So while the company is in the most complex part of the process, it answers only to regulators and its own shareholders. Waste management companies seeking to process and divert waste as a means of earning additional income are free to manage their waste as they see fit, provided that they are able to convert it into some sort of product that they can subsequently market. So when looking at the way the industry breaks down, only the removal part of the business is directly tied to the paying customer; the customer is typically far less concerned about how the waste management company handles, transfers and disposes of the waste, as long as this occurs within the bounds of the law.

Within even basic waste business, there are residential, commercial and municipal customers. Residential would be apartment buildings or communities that must contract their own removal services, and commercial are typically businesses in the same position, where they are outside of a municipal system. In the industry, the actual removal of waste at these businesses might be the same but the process of managing these customers is very different, and therefore the industry treats them differently. The most important distinction is the public entities — usually municipalities — which can be very different from other customer types. Municipal systems “are increasingly selling their assets to private companies in order to fight budget shortfalls” (Industry Surveys, no date). This highlights the need for companies to work closely with municipal entities to bring about the sort of business changes that will help them to grow — the relationship with government is inherently different than the relationship with other customer bases.

Each company will have a different breakdown of their customers and waste types. Some companies have a broad customer base and focus on waste types, while others are niche players. This allows for a fairly high degree of differentiation within the industry. The industry is generally in a state of maturity (IBIS, 2014), which highlights the need for those within the industry to focus on finding ways to make money in a mature state rather than seeking out market growth. Thus, while building strong customer relations is a key success factor, so too is building opportunity for growth, which is not going to be found everywhere.

Major Competitors and Market Share

How the market is divided depends on how the market is defined. There is a degree of specialization that exists with some players in this industry that highlights the challenges with defining waste management as a broad industry. That said, some of the major industry players are fairly large. If IBIS is correct that the different elements of the waste management industry combine for a value of roughly $60 billion, then it is easier to figure out overall market share. Despite a high level of diffusion in the waste management business, there are some leading companies. Waste Management Inc. has around $14 billion in income, implying 23.3% market share. Republic and Allied are the next-largest competitors, and combined have around 17-18% share, Republic worth 6% and Allied around 11% (Steverman, 2008). It is worth noting that municipalities still handle around 23% of the market as a group, essentially taking a quarter percent of waste management business out of the market (EBI, 2012). The market share pie chart therefore looks as follows:

Waste Management Inc. was created in 1971, is based in Houston and is an S&P 500 company. The company was built from a single garbage truck and today is the largest residential, commercial and municipal waste management company, specializing in collection, landfill and disposal. The company has recently expanded its business, basically via vertical integration, into recycling and renewable energy.

Allied and Republic, which were the 2nd- and 3rd-largest players in the industry, merged in 2008 to create the 2nd-largest player in the industry. After the municipalities, the other 37% is diffused among regional and smaller players in the industry. The two major companies at this point are not large enough to have duopoly or oligopoly power, however, because in almost every market there is a viable third player, or the municipality has retained control of its waste management services.

Porter’s Five Forces

Porter’s five forces analysis helps to outline the profitability of an industry by analyzing the different factors that contribute to profitability. The first of these is the bargaining power of buyers. Buyer power is generally quite high. Buyers are often municipalities or other entities with major waste disposal needs. Most buyers have a high volume of waste to offer, which creates a competitive situation in most markets. The result is that most markets the buyer has pricing power. If you are a decently-sized city, and there are at least two firms bidding for the waste management contract, that creates a situation where buyer power is relatively high, because firms in the industry will often compete on price, especially the small companies trying to establish their business.

The bargaining power of suppliers is relatively low. Suppliers are labor, and firms that provide the technology that companies in the industry utilize. While much of the technology is relatively specialized, there are not a lot of major buyers. While smaller waste management companies are price takers, the large ones like Waste Management and Republic are not price takers because their business, along with that of major cities, is essential to the survival of the companies that develop waste management technology.

There is low threat of substitutes. While some waste can be diverted, let’s be realistic here. We create a lot of waste, and somebody has to deal with that. There is no serious substitute for waste management services. The threat of new entrants is moderate. There are fixed costs associated with entering the business. All companies in the industry need access to a disposal site — a landfill — and there are strict regulations from the federal level on down that outline what it takes to be granted permission to operate a waste disposal site. Companies that have gone through this learning curve are at substantial advantage. Social pressure in many jurisdictions all but prevents the use of the lowest cost provider, because those tend to be a greater risk of environmental or ethical issues.

The intensity of rivalry is high. The companies involved in this industry have relatively high fixed costs associated with landfills and treatment facilities, and high variable costs in the trucks and other infrastructure. The result is that there is intense competition among the firms in the industry for the long-term contracts on which the industry thrives. That there are two major companies, and then a large number of smaller firms that are trying to compete, only drives prices down in the industry, since is difficult to differentiate on other factors.

Overall, Porter’s five forces tell us that the prevailing industry conditions are generally challenging. The firms in the industry are highly competitive, and the buyers often have the ability to dictate prices. There are some buyers that do not, however. That said, firms in the industry also have a low threat of substitution, which is a particularly important factor because as much power as buyers have, there is an understanding that they need to buy from someone; they cannot simply choose to not buy. The industry’s profits derive from this dynamic — firms know that as long as there is waste created by our society there will be a business for them. The form, shape and profitability of the business might change — maybe this year recycling will be big and next year it might be incineration — but there will always be demand. That is what allows the companies in the waste management industry to be profitable, and it will continue to be that way into the future. An industry was stable and predictable demand is not a bad thing — it may not be massively profitable but it is definitely attractive because firms within the industry can find ways to turn profits given a stable and predictable demand level.


The waste management industry is generally profitable, and is consistently so. Intuitively, if companies operate on long-term contracts, they should have some flexibility to manage capacity relative to demand. Within the two leading companies in the industry, however, there are differences in performance recently. While Waste Management is growing, Republic is not. The following chart shows the growth in revenue and profits for these two companies in the past five years (MSN Moneycentral, 2014):

The five-year average profit margin for WMI is 6%. Last year’s profits were down due to a special charge on waste-to-energy goodwill (an acquisition that was overvalued), and losses on investments (Business Wire, 2014). The average annual profit margin for Republic is 6.7% – both companies earn around the industry average. The same can be said for the gross margins of these two companies, where WMI has a gross margin of 35%, down slightly from the 5-year average, and Republic has a gross margin of 37.2%, down sligthtly from its 5-year average of 39.8%. It is perhaps somewhat disconcerting that in an industry where the net margin is not great there is some evidence building that gross margins are starting to be squeezed, especially in light of the effects of high levels of competition.

In terms of balance sheet performance, both companies are healthy. WMI, perhaps to fuel its growth, has become more highly leveraged than the industry average, with a debt-to-equity ratio of 1.56, compared with an industry average of 1.18. Republic has not grown much in recent years, and therefore is expected to have less debt — that is the case, too, with a debt-to-equity ratio of 0.9. Both companies have similar solvency ratios. WMI has a current ratio of 0.76 and a quick ratio of 0.62; Republic has a current ratio of 0.77 and a quick ratio of 0.62. Both figures are borderline unhealthy, and well below industry averages which are respectively 1.08 and 0.79 (MSN Moneycentral, 2014).

Efficiency metrics need to be evaluated in context of what businesses in which the company specializes, but also in light of circumstances — the writedown on the acquisition for WMI affects any metric that uses net income, but the writedown did not affect day-to-day operations. WMI has revenue per employee of $328K, compared with Republic at $273K, and an industry average of $271K, so it appears that WMI is consistently a better-earning company than the other firms in the industry. WMI has a receivables turnover of 8.46 times, where Republic’s receivables turnover is 10.02 times, both numbers better than the industry average but Republic’s is significantly so. Asset turnover is probably a better measure for this industry, given that firms tend to have a high level of fixed assets. WMI has an asset turnover of 0.62, Republic has 0.43 and the industry average is in between at 0.55. Inventory turnover is not an important metric because waste management is largely a service business with no real inventory levels — the sky high inventory turn statistics for these companies illustrates that.

The five-year average investment returns on WMI are ok. The company returns 12.4% on equity, 3.5% on assets and 7% on capital. These numbers are not great in most industries, and are just a little bit above the average for this industry. Republic has a lower-than-average ROE at 7.2% over five years and the ROA at 2.8% is also lower than the industry average. Republic’s return on capital is higher than the industry average, however, at 5.8%, and this owes to the lower level of debt that the company holds. All told, the returns in the waste management industry are not great, and the leading companies tend to hover around the average.

Overall, it is worth considering that there is a high level of stability in the waste management business. Neither of these companies has taken a loss in the last five years, and revenues tend to be stable. The financial analysis does reveal some differences in startegy between these two companies. It is evident that WMI is more growth-oriented. This is seen in the upward trend in the company’s revenues, but also in the writedown on its waste-to-energy acqusitions. A writedown is never good, but it is a sign that the company is making acquisitions and trying to grow its business.

Republic, for its part, seems more content to work with long-term contracts and that company does not appear to be actively pursuing growth opportunities. This is slighly strange. Republic and Allied merged to form the number two in the industry, and a reasonable assumption based on what happens in other industries is that post-merger a combined entity would be more competitive and would try to leverage some synergies to win business if not from the incumbent industry leader then at least from the smaller companies in the business. Republic has instead not showed much sign of pursuing growth and the combined entity has taken a very conservative approach both to its business and to its financial management. WMI is much more growth-oriented in perspective, and can be assumed to continue growth opportunities going forward. This is important because with technological innovation and a greater social push towards diverting waste, there are going to be growth opportunities — this finanial analysis tells us that Waste Management Inc. is in a better position to take advantage of future opportunities as they present.

SWOT Analysis

A SWOT analysis for the leading companies in the industry shows that strength in the industry derives from having a solid track record, good relationships with customers and a high level of both infrastructure and competency. The best customers in the industry are the large waste producers, either at the municipal or the industrial level. These companies like to work with the same waste management firms on long-term deals; most such customers are risk averse. As a result of this, companies in this industry need to be viewed by the customers as stable, reliable and technologically proficient. The latter is especially critical for companies that want to become more involved in emerging fields and like waste-to-energy and recycling, which technological capability is a key success factor. Becaues the industry is stable, firms that want to compete in the industry also benefit from a high level of stability.

A major weakness in the industry comes from the relatively slender margins. This works while the revenues are stable, but if there is any shock to revenues, the slim margins can hurt the companies in the business. Overall, however, there are not many weaknesses among major players in the industry — a high stability industry allows the biggest players in the business to work out their weaknesses. The lack of traction that Waste Management Inc. got on its waste-to-energy business highlights the fact that the emerging fields that hold so much promise also hold more risk as well.

The waste management industry is stable, but there is still opportunity. The first opportunity is that waste management is pretty much the same anywhere the world. The skills and technologies that American waste management companies have developed can readily be applied anywhere else. WMI is very active in the Canadian market, but these compaines could if they wanted to go overseas. There are different regulatory regimes, which would challenge an overseas move, but nearly limitless potential for growth almost anywhere there are people. Another opportunity that exists in the industry is the 23% of municipal business that municipalities still run. This is all business that could be privatized, which would provide billions in growth opportunities to WMI, Republic and other private players in the industry. This is probably the best opportunity. In addition to population growth, privatization has been the biggest opportunity and growth driver in the business over the course of recent decades.

There are a number of threats to the waste management industry players as well. The first is that there is a tough regulatory environment in the waste management industry, and the trend going forward — based on public sentiment as much as anything else — is that there are going to be tighter regulations for the industry. The result of this is that firms will need to be careful about how they operate. It should be noted, however, that regulatory changes may open up opportunities for some companies in the industry, and will in all likelihood benefit larger companies that are more capable of making substantial technology investments. Unlike in most industries, demand is not really threatened, because despite social awareness people still generate a phenomenal amount of waste, there remains great markets for institutional, agricultural and medical waste management and the population of the United States has been growing for the past 500 years.

Strategic Recommendations

All told the industry conditions are generally good, at least for the largest firms in the business. The move towards a more diversified system of waste handling benefits the largest players in the industry, and as a result the present industry conditions favor the biggest companies. Smaller competitors are going to be increasingly challenged, and this points to industry consolidation going forward. The industry is not highly concentrated, and while there was some talk that the Allied-Republic merger would not be allowed to stand, the HHI on the industry is sufficiently low that the Department of Justice would have no grounds to prevent future mergers, with the possible exception of Republic-WMI. But conslidation among the smaller, regional players is entirely possible, if not probable going forward. For the largest companies, it would be wise to be prepared to lead this process, rather than allow a serious third player into the industry.

The industry is also moving towards different niches, and that creates opporunity for large, diversified player to emerge. Republic is conservative and has shown little inclination to diversification within the industry, and WMI was burned, no pun intended, in their waste-to-energy venture. Still, more materials are being separated from garbage and the broad trend in the industry is to handle more forms of waste, and derive secodary income from the processing and repurposing of that waste. Such highly integrated systems should be the focal point for firms in the industry.

A third recommendation is to continue to push for privatization. There is still 23% of the market — billions of dollars — in municipal contracts that have yet to the be privatized. While granted the low-hanging fruit of privatization has already been plucked, ongoing pressure on municipal budgets should continue to see privatization increase. For companies in the industry, it would be beneficial to offer municipalities the sorts of solutoins that are difficult for municipalities to achieve on their own — advanced sorting and recycling for example. This means that the companies need to make investment in technologies so that they can demonstrated a genuine waste management advantage over municipal systems, not just a cost advantage.

There is also room for international growth. As scale becomes more important, particularly as a source of competitive advantage, this will create more opportunities internationally, and not just in Canada. Europe and Asia are massive markets that have a lot of potential. Even where municipalities run their own waste collection, there are opportunities to license new technologies. The most successful firms in this industry going forward are going to be the ones with the most international mindset, because there is tremendous growth overseas for companies that want to build up the scale. If WMI or Republic won’t do it, a foreign company will, and could enter the U.S. market. Complacency is definitely not the friend of any company in this industry.

These recommendations allow the companies in the industry to create new markets, to develop their own competencies and to grow through consolidation that should build their capabilities. These three recommendations help the companies in the industry to build on their strengths going forward so that they are not left crying when regulations change and that they can manage external issues easily. For the smaller companies in the industry, they are going to come under direct threat. One of the ways that they can address such threats is to ensure that their contracts are sound, and that their relationships with the key decision makers in their area are even sounder. This way, they are less likely to lose business as the bigger companies seek to expand. But the smaller companies also have to recognize that technological investment will tilt the industry towards scale advantages that have not previously existed. Once, all you needed to compete was some trucks and a landfill, so there was no much advantage to having scale; but today the technology needs are changing that and companies in this industry are going to need to have scale in order to be competitive; smaller companies should either look to get bigger quicker or they should start looking at being acquired, because consolidation is doubtless on the way.

There is also a lot of room with the technological changes for companies to dominate a niche with superior technology. If a company finds a superior way to handle agricultural waste, for example, it could take over that industry. The same is true for other types of waste as well. Therefore any company that feels it can cultivate competitive advantage through technology should pursue that because this industry is increasingly going to be dominated by technological leaders.

The waste management industry is largely favorable, but it is in a state of change. It is reasonable to be optimistic, based on the high stability of demand conditions, for any company that has either scale or technological advantage, and definitely any company that has both. The industry remains diffuse, which provides opportunity for growth but also a competitive environment; the best companies are the ones prepared to adapt to changes to this environment.


Business Wire. (2014). Waste Management announces fourth quarter and full year 2013 results. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 4, 2014 from

Capel, C. (2014). Innovations in waste. Waste Management World. Retrieved June 3, 2014 from

EBI. (2012). U.S. Solid Waste Industry Reaches $55 Billion in Revenues – Innovative conversion technologies poised to shake up the industry. EBI Online. Retrieved June 3, 2014 from

IBIS World. (2014). Waste treatment and disposal services in the U.S.: Market research report. IBIS World Retrieved June 3, 2014 from

MSN Moneycentral. (2014). Waste Management Inc. Retrieved June 4, 2014 from

MSN Moneycentral. (2014). Republic Services Retrieved June 4, 2014 from

Steverman, B. (2008). Waste Management: Trashing a merger? Business Week. Retrieved June 3, 2014 from

Waste Management 2013 Annual Report.

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We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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