Hofstede’s National Culture Model
The term organizational culture did not emerge in the literature until the late 1970s and represents a relatively new addition that has gained a lot of attention since its introduction. Hofstede (1990) poses a series of questions that are directed towards organizational culture:
First, can organizational cultures be “measured” quantitatively, on the basis of answers of organizational members to written questions, or can they only be described qualitatively?
Second, if organizational cultures can be measured in this way, which operationalizable and independent dimensions can be used to measure them, and how do these dimensions relate to what is known about organizations from existing theory and research?
Third, to what extent can measurable differences among the cultures of different organizations be attributed to unique features of the organization in question, such as its history or the personality of its founder?
The quantitative measures of the cultures of the twenty units in the research, aggregated at the unit level, showed that a large part of the differences among these twenty units could be explained by six factors, related to established concepts from organizational sociology, that measured the organizational cultures on six independent dimensions (Hofstede, Neuijen, Ohayv, & Sanders, 1990).
Since Hofstede and his team publish their ground breaking article, it gained a lot of traction in the literature. His original research included four dimension and others were added later. These dimensions represent various poles in which there can different points on the spectrum identified. These include (McSweeney, 2002):
Power Distance: ‘the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) expect and accept that power is distributed unequally’
Uncertainty Avoidance: ‘intolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity’
Individualism vs. Collectivism: ‘the extent to which individuals are integrated into groups’
Masculinity vs. Femininity ‘assertiveness and competitiveness vs. modesty and caring’
The role of culture was considered to be something of “software of the mind” that operates subjectively and unconsciously. Despite the models popularity, there are many criticisms that have been made of the model. One is that there are typically many subcultures present in a country that would have different characteristics when compared to the primary culture (McSweeney, 2002).
Figure 1 – Brazil’s Cultural Dimensions (The Hofstede Centre, N.d.)
The power distance index for Brazil is fairly high when compared to Western Cultures which stems from a large amount of inequality and a fairly strict hierarchy structure when it comes to decision making in families and in other groups. By contrast, the U.S. culture is more of an egalitarian culture than a hierarchical one. The egalitarian perspective is found in most of the Western world.
By contrast to the egalitarian perspective, the Brazilian culture has an organizational structure is more hierarchical. The uncertainty avoidance index score the mainstream culture is high which means that the population typically does not like risk and uncertainty. This measure considers the amount of risk that an individual or community would be willing to take. It is likely that Brazilian individuals would be less likely to accept risk in their decision making processes.
Another cultural dimension is long-term orientation. The Brazilian culture has a moderate amount of long-term orientation which is portrayed by a fairly high to moderate indulgence rating. They are also fairly low in pragmatism which can also be considered a long-term orientation measure. By contrast, the U.S. mainstream culture rates the lowest in this measure than any other country. So when compared to the U.S., the Brazilian culture would be more long-term oriented but less so than other Eastern cultures.
Saudi Arabia and France
Hofstede’s model is often used to compare two different cultures so that someone can get a quick feel for the cultural differences found in these two countries. Using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model comparisons the differences in cultures and the similarities can be quickly visualized. In this example, the two cultures have roughly equal preferences for uncertainty avoidance and indulgence. However, they are vastly separated in power distance, individualism, and pragmatism. The biggest difference in the two cultures will stem from the fact that France is an extremely individualistic nation while Saudi Arabia represents a more collectivist culture.
Figure 1 – Hofstede Model (The Hofstede Centre, N.d.)
Hofstede first developed his cultural model with four factors and later expanded it to include pragmatism and indulgence. There are many criticisms that can be made of this model and the model is most likely far from perfect. However, it does seem to have value in the sense that it can help people get a feel for different cultural tendencies that one might find in a country’s culture. The tendencies will not apply to all the members, but there would be a high probability of finding them more often in that country. The model can be used to prepare travelers, business people, or many other groups to what they might find in the culture of another country.
Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D., & Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring Organizational Cultures: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study across Twenty Cases. Administrative Sciences Quarterly, 286-316.
McSweeney, B. (2002). Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences: A triumph of faith – a failure of analysis. Human Relations, 89-118.
The Hofstede Centre. (N.d.). What about Brazil? Retrieved from The Hofstede Centre: http://geert-hofstede.com/brazil.html
The Hofstede Centre. (N.d.). What about Saudi Arabia? Retrieved from The Hofstede Centre.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!