Groupthink Theory importance detailed analysis


Groupthink is a phenomenon in which group members reach a consensus on important issues through avoidance of alternative views and any points by avoiding any external influences on the issues (Janis, 1982). The group members try to avoid as much as possible any conflict so as to have a uniform final decision. Groupthink can lead to bad decisions especially by politicians, corporate organization leaders, and the jury (Janis, 1982). In this essay, the main discussions will be the theory of groupthink, and any research studies supporting groupthink. The others will be the implications of the group theory to the real world, examples, and the criticisms of the groupthink in the political, corporate organizations, and the jury.


The theory of groupthink

The group theory by Janis Irvin in 1982 describes the process of decision-making involving groups on various issues such as in politics, business, or legal (Janis, 1982). The groups have good cohesion and agree unanimously to one decision without evaluating any other alternative viewpoints or any risks associated with the decision made. The groupthink theory suggests that there is a lot of cohesion and oneness, but lacks directive leadership (Janis, 1982)of the decision team (Janis, 1982). According to the groupthink theory, some of the errors experienced by corporations are due to the unanimous agreement to a decision without evaluating the possible limitations (Janis, 1982). Some of the errors are decision timing and criticizing some decisions that are good and accepting the faulty ones in order for the group to remain cohesive.

Research studies that support groupthink

There are many studies that support and explain groupthink and how it affects decision-making in such areas as politics, the jury, and corporate organizations. One of the researchers is by Hart in 1990 when he studied the groupthink and its contribution to flawed decision-making in the government (Hart, 1990) (Hart, 1990). Another research by Kowert, in 2002, views groupthink as a way to avoid policy deadlock by listening to too much advice from outside the group (Kowert, 2002). He advises leaders to have their staff organized in a way that is suitable depending on their leadership and learning style (Kowert, 2002). The other research is by Janis, who sees groupthink as the psychological drive to arrive at a consensus with no room for disagreements and any alternatives (Janis, 1982). According to Janis, Groupthink system of decision-making led to the major foreign fiascoes, especially in the Korean War (Janis, 1982). (Esser, 1998)


Real-life examples of the implications of groupthink theory

There are a number of real-life examples of some implications of groupthink, in the political, legal, and corporate groups. One example is that of the Iran-contra scandal, a political scandal in the US during the second term of the Reagan Administration, showing that groupthink can cause political troubles (Badie, 2010). Some senior officers in the government facilitated the selling of the arms to Iran to free the seven American hostages in Lebanon by Iranians. Groupthink can lead to coup d’état in some countries. An example is a case concerning the Bay of Pigs’ invasion in which some Cuba refugees tried to topple Fidel Castro’s government, after receiving some training financed by the CIA (Kowert, 2002). Fidel had tried to attack the US companies, and the US government saw him as a threat to its territories and President Dwight ordered the training of the Cuban exiles, who attacked Cuba.  Another implication is in courts, where criminals emerge free even when they are guilty. An example is a case that led to the release of Casey Anthony, who had killed her baby, Caylee Anthony in America (Redding, 2012). There were 12 juries hearing the case, who unanimously agreed to acquit Anthony of any criminal offenses (Redding, 2012). The other real-life example of groupthink is the one that led to the collapse of the Swissair, which was initially doing very well (Walsh, 1989). The management had a strong self-belief as they unanimously made poor decisions and mismanaged the venture. The airline crumbled down and became bankrupt to the surprise of many (Walsh, 1989), which shows that groupthink can cause mismanagement of business corporations.

Criticisms of groupthink theory

There are a number of criticisms on the theory of groupthink by Janis, who portrays it as a negative phenomenon. Esser, (1998), argues that unanimous agreement can lead to improved performance of the group. Practically groupthink can assist in initiating training programs incorporate organizations, which can also minimize the troubles of groupthink in the workplace (Esser, 1998). Another criticism of the groupthink theory is that according to Janis, Groupthink and the outcome of the decisions made in the meetings have a direct connection (Hart, 1990). The fact is that other factors exist between the groupthink and the outcomes of the decision, such as financing and the environmental factors.  According to some studies in some American corporations, groupthink decision-making can help in making a sound judgment on management issues if those in the group have good leadership skills (Turner & Pratkanis, 1998). Esser also discovered that groupthink had a connection with failures, but there was no correlation between groupthink and cohesiveness (Esser, 1998).



Groupthink is a phenomenon in which group members reach a consensus on important issues through avoidance of alternative views and any points by avoiding any external influence on the issues (Ahlfinger & Esser, 2001). The groupthink theory suggests that there is a lot of cohesion and oneness, although there is a lack of directive leadership. There are many studies that support and explain groupthink and how it affects decision-making in such areas as politics, the jury, and corporate organizations (Aldag & Fuller, 1993). There are a number of real-life examples of some implications of groupthink, in the political, legal, and corporate groups, such as the Iran-contra scandal (Hart, 1990). There are a number of criticisms on the theory of groupthink by Janis, who portrays it as a negative phenomenon, such as one criticism by Esser (Esser, 1998). To understand the groupthink theory and its implications in various areas, many people need to come up with recent research findings to offer some he


Ahlfinger, N. & Esser, J. (2001). Testing the groupthink model: Effects of

Promotional leadership and conformity predisposition. Social Behavior &

            Personality: An International Journal, 29(1), 31-42.

Aldag, R. & Fuller, S. (1993). Beyond Fiasco: A Reappraisal of the Groupthink Phenomenon and a New Model of Group Decision Processes. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 533-552.

Badie, D. (2010). Groupthink, Iraq, and the War on Terror: Explaining US Policy Shift toward Iraq. Foreign Policy Analysis, 6(4), 277-296. doi:10.1111/j.1743-8594.2010.00113.x

Esser, J. (1998). Alive and well Amer 25 years: A review of groupthink research. Organize oral behavior and Human Decision Processes, 73, 116-141.

Hart, P. (1990). Groupthink in Government: A study of small groups and policy failure. Swets & Zeitlinger.

Janis, I. (1982). Groupthink. Houghton Mifflin

Kowert, P. (2002). Groupthink or deadlock. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Walsh, H. (1989). Groupthink. Rapidan, VA: Harland Publications.

Redding, R. (2012). Likes Attract The Sociopolitical Groupthink of (Social) Psychologists. Perspectives On Psychological Science. doi:10.1177/1745691612455206

Turner, M. & Pratkanis, A. (1998). Twenty-five years of groupthink theory and research. Organize: on Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 73, 105-115.


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper