Scientific technique is the simple starting point where the present investigation process is done. The method relies on information gotten from straight surveillance by investigators hence is an experimental process. The process, therefore, involves the study of items that are not known to find out their necessary attributes or uniqueness. The attributes are then compared with the well-known property items that are already known. The assessment is later carried out on the likeness and variations for recognition reasons. Forensic science this is a scientific approach used in the investigation process with the main aim of ensuring justice to criminals. As a result, the technique involves the study and performance of the use of science for reasons of law enforcement. Forensic science is for that reason a very wide phrase that comprises of criminology and criminal justice as used in a social science discipline with the function of civil law management. The term also extends to a number of fields such as forensic medicine, firearms, questioned documents, fingerprint assessment, psychology, anthropology and others (Nickell and Fischer 2009).
The majority of forensic scientists are investigators who just capture information at the site of crime. They make use of extremely advanced technology to ensure that they expose the scientific proof in a number of areas of study. The present forensic science has a wide range of use. Some of the civil cases where it is used include counterfeiting, deception or negligence. However, the most widespread application area of forensic science is in the investigation of criminal cases. These cases engage victims like rape, murder, assault, robbery, theft and others. Forensic science is also applied in checking the conformity of different countries with such global accords like the Nuclear Non-explosion Treaty in addition to the Chemical Weapons conference and to study whether a country is making a top-secret nuclear weapons plan (Jackson and Jackson 2004).
It can be able to assist law enforcement officers in finding out whether any laws and regulations have been dishonored in the selling of products such as foods and drinks, the making of medicines or drugs, or pesticide application on crops. It can also find out whether drinking water conforms to officially permitted purity requirements by law. Wrongdoers frequently never plan out a break-in or robbery and not carefully go away behind different evidences that permit an investigator to follow their pathways comparatively with no trouble. Still, in case the criminal is extremely watchful all the way through their crime, there will still be some mapping out of their existence at the sight of crime. There are several areas of forensics. These areas include universal crime landscape study, forensic toxicology, forensic pathology, forensic chemistry, genetic fingerprint and many others (Jackson and Jackson 2004).
fingerprints as a vital thing in crime
One of the most vital things that connect a suspected criminal with the specific crime scene is the fingerprints. The examination of this is still carried out even if the fingerprints are not left by the criminal. In most cases, the investigators use the available relevant technology to expose the invisible fingerprints. With computerized fingerprints, the investigators are in a position to detect criminals. The phrase, DNA fingerprint, also called genetic fingerprint is employed in the scientific technique in which samples of DNA are gathered. he term DNA fingerprinting – or genetic fingerprinting – is applied to the scientific process whereby samples of DNA are collected, brought together and used in matching added samples of DNA. These added samples might have been established at the site of an offense. This DNA method is normally applicable in a case where the criminal attacker happens to have left a few bodily fluid at the crime site as well as when visual recognition is not probable. The technique depends so much on the principle that two or more persons cannot share similar genetic code apart from matching twins. The DNA that are studied and used to achieve a match will, therefore, be exceptional. The DNA fingerprinting is carried out on the basis that an attacker or criminal will leave a few quantity of body fluid such as saliva, semen, blood and other related fluids at the crime site. This explains why this method is accepted in various criminal investigations. Since the genetic makeup of every person is unique, it is thus, impossible to fake, forge or even change in whichever way and hence the results derived from this method of investigation is highly and commonly accepted (Nickel and Fischer 1999, Ftig and Richey 2000).
One of the most vital things that connect a suspected criminal with the specific crime scene is the fingerprints. The examination of this is still carried out even if the fingerprints are not left by the criminal. In most cases, the investigators use the available relevant technology to expose the invisible fingerprints. With computerized fingerprints, the investigators are in a position to detect criminals. The phrase, DNA fingerprint, also called genetic fingerprint is employed in the scientific technique in which samples of DNA are gathered. he term DNA fingerprinting – or genetic fingerprinting – is applied to the scientific process whereby samples of DNA are collected, brought together and used in matching added samples of DNA. These added samples might have been established at the site of a offense. This DNA method is normally applicable in a case where the criminal attacker happens to have left a few bodily fluid at the crime site as well as when visual recognition is not probable. The technique depends so much on the principle that two or more persons cannot share similar genetic code apart from matching twins. The DNA that are studied and used to achieve a match will, therefore, be exceptional. The DNA fingerprinting is carried out on the basis that any attacker or criminal will leave a few quantity of body fluid such as saliva, semen, blood and other related fluids at the crime site. This explains why this method is accepted in various criminal investigations. Since the genetic makeup of every person is unique, it is thus, impossible to fake, forge or even change in whichever way and hence the results derived from this method of investigation is highly and commonly accepted (Nickel and Fischer, 1999, Ftig and Richey 2000).
What seems clear to the naked eye might, in reality, appear to be a complete new story. Proof might vary from hair samples, to DNA, fingerprints, and several extra. In the past years, forensic science has assisted to transform law enforcement in all these ways although some other old techniques are still in use until now. Since there is possibility of making mistakes, forensic pathology needs much tolerance and attentiveness to guarantee that each bit of proof is gathered and examined. In real sense, DNA can both help to clear any suspect incorrectly and to assist in the identification of crime itself. Forensic science has also been successful in the past in defending the innocent while at the same time bringing the guilty ones in to justice (Jackson and Jackson,2004, Ftig and Richeey 2000).
Psychological profiling is one more attractive way in which forensics might assist resolve crimes. Essentially, psychological profiling examines the behavior and customs of successive criminals. This may depend on the number of resemblance needed to individualize an impression. According to Individualization book by Tuthil quoted in Nickel and Fischer (1999), the process of trying to individualize an impression is recognized by searching for an accord of matching individual attributes by such number and significance as to stop the chance of their having taken place by extra coincidence and ascertaining that there are no disparities that cannot be explained.
Toxicology and ballistics in forensic science
Toxicology and ballistics in forensic science can be used by chemists to detect chemicals in the stomach linings of an individual. Chemists in this case are called upon by the prosecution in a murder trial to give proof in case any victim’s poisoning in order to establish a criminal offence against the accused. A good example is the 1982 incident where the defendant, John Bodle was charged of poisoning his grandmother using arsenic lace coffee. Marsh, a chemist carried out a normal test by mixing alleged sample with hydrogen sulphide and hydrochloric acid. He was in a position to detect arsenic as yellow arsenic trisulphide which had deteriorated when it was shown to the judges. This permitted the suspect to be set free because of sensible disbelief (Sapse and Kobilinsky 2011, Nickel and Fischer 2009, Lu Tilstone et al. 2006).
Anthropological techniques can also be applied to law enforcement through forensic science. In this case, an identification system is created on the basis of physical measurements. Prior to that identification creation, an individual can only be recognized by name or reference made to his/her photograph. The first person to apply this technique was a French police officer by the name Alphonse Bertillon after being dissatisfied with the ad hoc techniques which were being employed to recognize the captured criminal. He started his work on developing dependable system of anthropometrics purposely for categorization of human being. This officer continued to come up with several extra forensics of which forensic document examination was one of them. Compounds such as galvanoplastics were used for the preservation of footprints, ballistics including the dynamometer which was used specifically for the attainment of the amount of force used when breaking and entering (Byrd and Castner 2012, Houck and Siegel 2013).
Forensic science can also assist in the study of the manner of death by gathering information on the cause of death by medical practitioners. A surgeon from the French army analytically studied the impacts of violent death on interior organs. However, the groundwork of current pathology was laid by the Italian surgeons, Paolo Zacchia and Fortunato Fidelis after when the writings on the similar topic began in the 18th century. This groundwork was laid by studying transformations that took place in the body makeup as the consequence of the disease (Siegel and Saukko 2012).
In summary, criminalistics is the use of arrange of sciences to answer questions that relate to examination and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence which comprises of fingerprints, footwear impressions and even tire tracks. It also answers questions associated with the study and comparison of controlled substances, ballistics tool mark examination, firearms in addition to extra evidence in the investigation of criminal offences. Proofs are normally processed in crime laboratories in a characteristic situation. Forensic accounting can also be used to study and interpret various accounting evidence in order to carry out an investigation on accounting fraud during financial auditing. As a result, this type of forensic study can be used to identify criminals from the group of financial officers working in a given firm or institution. Other types of forensics that can be used to investigate criminals are digital offences used for purposes of data recovery, forensic aerial photography, forensic anthropology, forensic archeology, forensic astronomy, forensic botany,, forensic chemistry, forensic DNA analysis forensic engineering and many more others that are not mentioned in this paper(Nickel and Fischer 1999, Siegel and Saukko 2012).
Nickell, Joe, and John F. Fischer. Crime science: methods of forensic detection. University Press of Kentucky, 2009.
Jackson, R.N and Jackson, J.M. Forensic Science, Published 2004.
Siegel, Jay A., and Pekka J. Saukko. Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, 3V Set ONLINE. Academic Press, 2012.
Lu Tilstone, William J., Kathleen A. Savage, and Leigh A. Clark. Forensic science: An encyclopedia of history, methods, and techniques. ABC-CLIO, 2006.
ftig, Micah A., and Stephen Richey. “DNA and forensic science.” New Eng. L. Rev. 35 (2000): 609.
Sapse, Danielle, and Lawrence Kobilinsky, eds. Forensic Science Advances and Their Application in the Judiciary System. CRC Press, 2011.
Byrd, Jason H., and James L. Castner, eds. Forensic entomology: the utility of arthropods in legal investigations. CRC press, 2012.
Houck, Max M., and Jay A. Siegel. Fundamentals of forensic science. Academic Press, 2010
Girard, James E. Criminalistics: Forensic Science, Crime, and Terrorism. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2013.
Page, Mark, Jane Taylor, and Matt Blenkin. “Uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences—Fact or fiction?.” Forensic science international 206, no. 1 (2011): 12-18.
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