Biochemistry Diabetes occurrence detailed analysis


Biochemistry is about life at the molecular level. Biochemists have the ability to work in many fields and look into life from the view of the molecule. Diabetes is very common among people and is not a major problem now but will be in the next century or so. Diabetes is defined by resting hyperglycemia.  Glucose has to stay in a fine concentration area. It’s needed for the brain, muscles and fats. In the normal state, it’s controlled by insulin and glucagon which is both produced by the pancreas. Insulin is required by muscle, fat and the liver. It is vital for life. When you eat, the relative concentration of insulin is increased. Later, glucagon rises and balances the hormones. Glucagon is there to mobilize and stabilize the levels of insulin. Diabetes is a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin. Two types of diabetes: Type I and Type II. Type 1 (or juvenile-onset) is an alter-immunitive disease that causes the body to recognize the Beta cells as a foreign entity and destroys it. The Beta cell is the cell that creates insulin. Without treatment, it is fatal. These people are insulin-dependent for life. A cure for Type 1 is currently being investigated. It’s treated with insulin but a better way is needed. The most promising approach is the eyelet transplantation. Take eyelets from recently deceased and transplant into diabetic patients. However, there is a chance of rejection of the cells as in any transplantation. Also, there is nowhere near enough tissue to generate enough eyelets for all of the diabetics. Stem cells are also being investigated to see if its possible to generate Beta cells. Type 1 is less than 10% of diabetics. Type II diabetics are over 90%. They have the Beta cells and some insulin but the Beta cells can’t keep up. There is a relative insulin deficiency, it can’t keep up. The problem is the body is developing a resistance to insulin. There is a genetic component that is related to Type II diabetes. There is an inhereitance factor. The faulty gene either affects the production levels of the Beta cell or it adds to the periphery tissue insulin resistance. Mostly it seems to affect the Beta cell production. There is also an environmental problem. It has to do a lot with lifestyle. Obesity and a sedentitary lifestyle (lack of exercise) are the type most prevalent environmental problems. Most people can increase the production of their Beta cells in response to a resistance of insulin but will not keep up. Eventually it will lead to hypoglycemia and hyperlipidemia which will kill the B-cells. There are a lot of people who are insulin resistance but don’t get diabetes. As long as the Beta cell can work harder and produce more insulin then they are okay. Diabetes is the seventh largest cause of death. It affects 7 million Americans and probably affects another 7 million that don’t know it. Leading cause of blindness, renal failure, non-traumatic amputation. 2-4 times more likely to suffer from stroke. 1 in 10 of every health care dollar is spent on diabetes and 1 in 4 of Medicaid. It is the single most expensive chronic illness today. Put it all together, and your average life expectancy is decreased by 5-10 years. There are 151 million diabetics in the world. In the next ten years, we expect a 25% increase in the USA and a 50% increase in the world. Asia alone expects a 57% increase. Type II diabetics is epidemic because of obesity (60% of Americans) and sedentary lifestyles. There is a direct relationship between visceral fat (around your waist) and insulin resistance. More fat equals more resistance. China is becoming more modern and Westernized. The number is relatively low compared to the population but they’re catching up now that they have McDonalds. Leptin (leptos is Greek for thin) is a hormone synthesized in adipose tissue that targets the hypothalamus and tells it to stop eating more once you have enough food intake. We now know of six other hormones that target the hypothalamus. Ppy336 was just reported in early September. Diabetes is severe and has underlying disorders that contribute to diabetes. By the time diabetes actually develops, its nearly too late. Metabolic syndrome or syndrome X occurs in the pre-diabetic state that has serious repercussions. Atleast 1 of (Type II diabeteis, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance) or and of (hypertension, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia or low HDL, microalbuminuria) leads to metabolic syndrome. 50 million Americans (1 in 5) have Metabolic Syndro>40”, TG>150mg/dl, HDL135/80; blood sugar>110 mg/dl. It is exquisitely lifestyle sensitive and features disproportionate abdominal fat. Low-fat foods won’t save you from heart disease. Sugar is essentially the new fat. The liver has the ability to synthesize lipids and deliver them. Eat, glucose goes up, trigger insulin release which is necessary to transfer glucose to muscles and fats. The liver is shut down because it is too busy dealing with dietary fats. Snacking all day causes persistently high glucose levels. High insulin does not allow the liver to stop producing more fat during meals. So now you get synthesized fats and dietary fats which compete with muscle tissue and then feed into the heart and can cause insulin resistance! The grazing pattern of eating could partly explain metabolic syndrome. There is a new hypothesis of fructose. It is a cheap sweetener commonoly used in processed foods. One half of table granulated sugar and is selectively used by the liver to make fats.  Corn syrup and other syrups are high fructose. Its in sugar, honey, cola, chocolate bar, bowl of cereal, and carrots. Rats that were fed fructose develop metabolic syndrome very quickly. IGT (impaired glucose tolerance) is a predictor of diabetes.





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