Development Theories in Human Psychology

Development Theories in Human Psychology

Introduction

The development of psychology is the improvement of human thinking and guidance of action from childhood to adulthood. The story of the human mind’s social study involves stages, and various psychologists explain these stages. They have identified theories to assist in being aware of how the brain of a child and adult think and work. The psychologists studied the leading causes that influenced child and adult behaviour, words, and actions. This paper identifies a developmental set of interrelated ideas designated to explain human psychology, their similarities, and their differences.

Jean Piaget came up with a theory connected to the child stages of growth on how the child can be creative and active in the community. Piaget observed the transformation of cognitive developments. Its main idea was cognitive development was in stages where the stages are interrelated. Cognition is at the core of education, and all activities among sentient life (Huitt et al. 2003) According to Erickson’s psychosocial theory, the development of human psychology was in stages throughout humans’ growth to old age. Freud’s psychosexual theory focused on emotions as he examined parents’ role in ensuring they control children’s sexual and aggressiveness in some years of a human lifetime to boost their development in psychology, he believed that personality begins at the age of five (Ollioff, 1996).

Freud developed his theory from a case study; he decided to use the three connected working parts; the ego, the id, and the superego. Erickson’s theory had two ideas that need to be solved to bring a change of becoming confident, be creative, and can be able to give to the community. The eight Erickson’s theories are; trust and mistrust, autonomy and doubt, industry and inferiority, initiative and guilt, integrity vs despair, intimacy vs isolation, generativist vs stagnation, and identity vs confusion. Erickson believed that each stage human being face new challenges and the outcome from every stage depends on how social overcome those challenges. Piaget indicated that the external environment forces cause a change in childhood behaviour change in their thinking and ability to solve problems. Piaget’s theory occurs in four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal steps.

The main difference in Piaget’s theory and Erickson’s is the period of study in a human lifetime. Piaget’s approach concentrates on a period from the earliest childhood to the years of late teenage. Young children’s development in their thinking is hard without focusing on those who socialize and nurture them (Bretherton. 2009). The study period in Erickson’s view on human development in human psychology from infancy to old age. Feud’s theory involves studying the human brain from childhood to adulthood; it stops at the stage where genital growth has ended.

Piaget and Erickson have closeness as they are studied by comparing and contrasting relations with other psychologists. Feud’s theory is considered outdated and has been highly criticized compared to other approaches. Erickson expanded on feud’s stages by arguing on consequences of development; some cultures may require being solved in different ways, focusing upon their survival needs.

Conclusion

In summary, there are similarities and differences in the theories of the development of human psychology. These theories are psychosexuality by Freud, psychosocial by Erickson, and cognitive by Piaget. Erickson’s, Freud’s, and Piaget’s theories have shown similarities and differences in the stages of development, period examination, and mode of study, as shown above.

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