There are two broad categories of risks of developmental delays; environmental factors and genetic factors. Both risks can impact negatively on the development of human and the more the impact the more delays are witnessed in development. both categories of risk may result in a delay in Human development.
Documentation from Siskin Children’s Institute (2017) Identifies generic risks as “chromosomal abnormalities” like fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome while the environmental risks are explained as the introduction of a dangerous agent after and during birth. These include poor nutrition, infections, and poor living conditions.
General psychology is among the wide spectrum of psychology. It majors mostly in explaining the study of the ability of a human to understand and retain information. General psychology focuses on the emotional, social and cognitive learning path. The general psychologist’s role is to study and note out non-functioning, developmental processes not running well and come up with a plan of improving the running. This is made possible through evaluating the development in order to examine the ability of the child which will have to come up with the report on the child strengths and weaknesses( Siskin Children’s Institute 2017).
Prior to beginning to figure out care, it is essential to comprehend that the development phase between birth and being a toddler is not a random one. It takes place in a continuous procedure and it is conjoined to results and an expected outcome. The results can be tabled and investigated. theories and important research taken to uncover the delays in development during the start of childhood are;
According to Freud, he viewed the development of humanity as a combination of conscious and unconscious childhood memories that show up through stages of development. Freud in his theory argued about five development stages for human beings. For this case, we focus on the oral stages, the stage is between 1.5 years of age and birth. According to Journal Psyche(2015). It is at this stage that all things oral are fixed and failure to satisfactorily fix them, there might be the development of negative oral habits.
Erickson’s Development theory.
The theory was a revolution to human development thought. Erickson was the pioneer proposes of human development that lasted for a lifespan. The development was through eight psychological stages. In each stage, there is an available crisis or conflict that one has to face and emerge victorious in order to move to the next stage which is popular as Trust vs Mistrust . on this stage, there is uncertainty in the infant about the world and the infants depends on their primary caregiver to provide stability and security.
Attachment theory by John Bowlby
Bowlby’s attachment theory according to Edeland, B (2009) is associated with both normal social-emotional development and psychopathology developments. It is based on the idea that the initial interaction between the infant and the caregiver is the foundation for future development. Bowlby’s attachment theory is categorized into four stages of attachment over the infancy. The theory suggests that a child who experiences a clean-cut attachment with their parents is bound to be a strong adult. However, it is very normal for the child to be anxious in the absence of their parents during this stage. It is also possible for the child to be somehow sensitive to change and this is the explanation for unhealthy sleep patterns and irritability. Infant development is very dependant on the person giving care. If the caregiver experiences stress, then there is a high possibility that they will transfer the insecurities to the infant. It is possible for an infant to respond to a negative turn of events experienced by the parents.
The identity of our culture is essential in determining how we view ourselves and our surrounding environment on every single day we sum up or subtract who we are culture-wise. During the course of the infancy to the toddler level. The connection between the parent and the toddler is responsible for development increase in knowledge. The interaction between a parent and a child is a key source of information that the child gets inducted to their culture . this is as parenting is greatly influenced by the historical norms, activity and the society’s expectations. If the toddler’s family experiences hardships, it is possible for the environment to become unsteady and these can transfer the insecurity to the toddler.
Alex is 3 months old toddler. The parents Mathew and Marisol are having a difficult time to get him to sleep. According to them, he was sleeping well the beginning two months following the arrival of them at home from maternity. The family has moved three times in a period of one year. This has indicated financial problems. But for the past month, they have finally settled in their own home. the parents have indicated Alex having irritable behaviors with an increase in the crying at night. The baby did only have5-10 minutes intervals of sleep throughout the day. the parents have also observed that Alex does not engage or excel in any activity that he engaged in before. He has simply been frustrated and distracted. For a period of two days now, Alex has not had more than an hour of sleep time continuously. I knew about the family through the Hudson county Early Intervention Programme. The program pledged with me to offer support and identify any psychological effects associated with a dysfunctional pattern of sleep and the reduction in the activity rate. Jane and Bill were very disturbed and scared about Alex’s condition and the links to a condition that might bring about long term disability.
Step 1: Physical Development
While observed, Alex seemed to develop physically as it is the expectations of any child his age. He did not show any signs of a delay in physical development . his weight, legs and other functions seemed alright.
Step 2: Cognitive Development
Alex had turned out to be unresponsive and withdrawn. He did not participate in child interactions no matter the persuasion by his peers. As a matter of fact, he got agitated by their continuous approach.
Step 3: Social Development
Observation of Alex and his parent’s interaction, he seemed to possess a strong bond with both the parents. Alex felt comfortable in the company of either of the parents.
Step 4: Reflection
Toddlers are unable to initiate a change in the behavior independently. The parents are tasked with facilitating for psychotherapy required to support the toddler through the process of intervention.
The parents should also learn on the way to implement therapeutic interventions. In day to day activities as one of the keys to change behaviors is the reflection. According to Siskin Children’s Institute, 2017.
After the report that there were no strains of neurological impairments in Alex’s medical test after conducting an evaluation on his development, I can clearly diagnose that Alex is having a pediatric sleep disorder affects the child’s and the family’s daily functioning. Untreated sleep problems may bring about behavioral, emotional and cognitive dysfunctional to develop with an existing sleep disturbance.
Support for the case.
Parental coaching-by motivating parents and keeping them active is a challenge to practitioners who work to achieve the change in toddlers, by coaching the parents you will cultivate diligence in the parenting process. (Mindel, 2006)
Applicable interventions and therapy models that assist the case.
Solution based therapy(T.A.P.S, 2010)
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