Denver Climate Action Planning Project
Carbon dioxide emissions, the most common greenhouse gas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports, increased by 20% from 1990 to 2005. One recent climate action report projects the projected 19% increase in emissions between 2000 and 2020 will contribute to an array of environmental crises not only in the U.S., but also in countries throughout the world. If business-as-usual continues, increases in greenhouse gas emissions could skyrocket in places like Denver, Colorado, the city for the focus in this Capstone.
A current primary goal of the City and County of Denver, noted in the Denver Climate Action plan, purports to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Denver. Through city support of alternative transportation, the plan involves either incentivizing and/or searching for other ways to utilize alternative transportation. Consequently, in the interest of additionally enhancing the understanding or the critical need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this Capstone determines to disclose common characteristics of the successful plans other cities have incorporated, and to some degree, evaluate the costs of implementing each program. The researcher utilizes the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research which the researcher utilized to address the primary research question, which queries: “What plans can the City and County of Denver, Colorado implement to reduce Green House gas emissions in Denver?.”
The best plan is, as the common proverb has it, to profit by the folly of others” www.bartleby.com/100/710.html” Pliny the Elder (A.D. c. 23-A.D. 79) www.bartleby.com/100/710.html” Pliny the Elder, as cited in Bartlett, 2000).
Context of the Problem
Currently, the United States merits the distinct embarrassment of qualifying as the world’s largest producer of greenhouse gases. Researchers predict that U.S. greenhouse gas emissions will continue to increase during the next decade, with increasingly somber consequences. Elena Fagotto, and Mary Graham (2007), point out in “Full disclosure: Using transparency to fight climate change; an essential first step in any effective climate change policy is to require major contributors to fully disclose their greenhouse gas emissions” that a recent climate action report projects the projected 19% increase in emissions between 2000 and 2020 will “contribute to persistent drought, coastal flooding, and water shortages in many parts of the country and around the world” (Â¶ 5). If cities, counties and states continue to conduct business-as-usual, Fagotto, and Graham warn, the increase could skyrocket to 30%. Carbon dioxide emissions, the most common greenhouse gas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports, increased by 20% from 1990 to 2005. “Emissions of three more potent fluorinated gases, hydroflu-orocarbons, perfluorocompounds, and sulfur hexafluoride, weighted for their relative contribution to climate change, increased by 82.5%. (Fagotto, & Graham, 2007, Â¶ 5). Although congressional leaders currently contemplate potential long-term-approaches to counter climate change, major proposals leave would not take effect for at least three more years. During the reportedly inevitable delay, U.S. greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase.
Statement of the Problem
In consideration of the critical, contemporary concern regarding greenhouse gas emissions, a primary goal of the City and County of Denver, Colorado, noted in the Denver Climate Action plan, purports to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Denver. Through city support of alternative transportation, the plan involves either incentivizing and/or searching for other ways to utilize alternative transportation. Consequently, in the interest of additionally enhancing the understanding or the critical need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this Capstone determines to disclose common characteristics of the successful plans other cities have incorporated, and to some degree, evaluate the costs of implementing each program.
Significance of the Study
The researcher perceives this Capstone to be personally and professionally significant as The bottom line:
Research Question and Sub-question
This Capstone, a qualitative study, utilizes the case study methodology, which proved helpful as a guide to answer this study’s research questions. The primary research question for this study examines information/data to address the query: What plans can the City and County of Denver, Colorado implement to reduce Green House gas emissions in Denver? Sub-questions addressed during the course of this study include:
What are some current existing projects that incentivize the use of alternative transportation to reduce energy use, traffic congestion, and emissions of green house gases and other pollutants?
What are some of the common characteristics noted in successful projects or strategies?
What is the best way to approach the problem of Green House gas emissions?
What areas merit particular consideration and/or concern?
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of the Capstone.
Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Literature Review
Chapter III: Methodology
Chapter IV: Analysis/Findings
Chapter V: Discussion, Conclusions, and Recommendations
Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter I, this study’s introduction, introduces the Capstone’s focus, presents the context of the problem, the problem statement, the main research question, four sub-questions addressed, and the significance of the study. The introduction also relates the research methodology the researcher used to address the primary research/sub-question(s).
Chapter II: Review of the Literature During Chapter II, the researcher presents information accessed from relevant studies and articles. This chapter explores literature which supports the research questions this Capstone proposes to answer.
Chapter III: Methodology
In Chapter III, the researcher expounds the research methodology, the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research which the researcher utilized to address the primary research question, and the four sub-questions.
Chapter IV: Analysis/Findings
Chapter IV explicates findings the researcher retrieved during this Capstone. In this section, the researcher relates specific suggested strategies for countering the increase of greenhouse gases.
Chapter V: Discussion, Conclusions, and Recommendations
Chapter V of this Capstone reflects a synopsis of relevant information and relates the researcher’s concluding thoughts. In addition, the researcher notes answers for this study’s primary question and researched sub-questions. Ultimately, based on researched findings, the researcher proffers recommendations to encourage future researchers, and recounts lessons the researcher obtained during the learning process involved in completing this Capstone.
Entering the next phase of this Capstone, the Literature Review chapter, the researcher asserts, that in addition to the proverb attributed to Pliny the Elder, that “the best plan is…to profit by the folly of others” (www.bartleby.com/100/710.html” Pliny the Elder, as cited in Bartlett, 2000), another concept merits consideration. The best plan, the researcher contends, also profits from the knowledge others attribute.
The next chapter, as part of the researcher’s plan for this Capstone, the Literature Review chapter, reflects a sampling of that knowledge related to reducing greenhouse gases.
Always design a thing by considering it in its next larger context chair in a room, a room in a house, house in an environment, an environment in a city plan”
Eliel Saarinen (Saarinen as cited in Simpson, 1988)
Introduction design of a study’s search process, Auston, Cahn, and Selden (2004), stress, mandates that a researcher retrieve and integrate information during his/her gathering of research.
During this Capstone, this researcher identified a sampling of relevant literature relating to this study’s focus and presents this information in this second chapter. The review of literature comprises a vital part of the case study, and constitutes an explicit, systematic approach to identifying, retrieving, and managing of credible information to locate information on a particular topic. For the design of this Capstone’s literature review, the researcher considered the literature for review, as Saarien notes regarding a design: “in its nest larger context” (Saarinen as cited in Simpson, 1988). The larger context, as noted in the introduction for this study, encompasses the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. In relating considerations for this focus, the researcher chose to implement a thematic arrangement of the literature, which includes:
Common Characteristics Noted in Successful Projects or Strategies
Approaches to Counter Green House gas
Programs Meriting Particular Consideration
Existing projects that incentivize the use of alternative transportation to reduce energy use, traffic congestion, and emissions of green house gases and other pollutants include
Characteristics in Successful Projects/Strategies
Approaches to counter green house gas
Emissions, as well as areas for concern
Research related in “Effectiveness of the mobility pass program in San Diego” supports regional transportation policy-making in San Diego, in comparable cities across California, as well as other U.S. cities. Based upon participation in a mobility pass program or Compass + Pass Program during late 2004, Louis Rea, and Sherry Ryan (2007), examine the mobility pass program’s effectiveness on individual travel behavior, resulting from the utilization of combined car-sharing and transit passes. Primary findings indicate some level of latent demand exists for alternatives to the drive alone commute; particularly as an alternative in heavy peak hour traffic congestion. Program participants improved their perceptions relating to transit, Rea, and Ryan also found, when individuals participate in the Program.
Pass users in the San Diego mobility pass program received unlimited transit system access, along with limited monthly car-sharing privileges. The literature Rea, and Ryan (2007) reviewed relating to their study “demonstrates that mobility pass programs are a viable means for reducing negative impacts of drive alone travel behavior. Critical to this strategy is integration of a broad array of public and private travel modes and services” (Rea, & Ryan, p. 34). Viable choices in designing effective programs includes agencies include partnering with private and/or public operators to compliment efforts. Collaboration to diversifying travel choices through transit agencies may attract individuals, traditionally adverse to public transport.
Mobility pass programs aim to connect the flexibility of car-sharing with generally less flexible modes such as the bus, light rail or commuter rail transit. Combining access to two modes for a single fare, planners hope, will increase enrollment of both modes; increase enrollment in car-sharing programs, as well as improve the convenience, and in turn, use of public transit (Rea, & Ryan, p. 34).
Benefits from mobility programs, Rea, and Ryan stress, frequently prove significant. Mobility pass programs particularly proffer substantial benefits. Programs Meriting Particular Consideration
Programs meriting particular consideration, the literature reveals need to envelop
Incentivizing public transportation,
Business incentives for compressed work weeks or telecommuting, and Congestion pricing as seen in London.
In “Carsharing: A Guide for Local Planners,” Adam Cohen, Susan Shaheen, and Ryan McKenzie (2008) explain that in carsharing individuals utilze private vehicle, albeit forego ownership costs and responsibilities. Instead of owning one or more vehicles, an individual, household or business may access a fleet of shared-use autos as-needed. As individuals join an organization that maintains a fleet of cars and light trucks parked in designated, leased spaces in an array of locations, they gain access to vehicles. “Vehicles are accessed on an as-needed basis, and members are typically charged each time they use a vehicle” (Shaheen & Cohen, as cited in Cohen, Shaheen, & McKenzie, p. 1). The practice of formal carsharing began more than 20 years in Europe. The first noted, formal U.S. carsharing service, however, did not start, however, until 1998, in Portland, Oregon. In January 2008, reports indicate that about 235,000 members shared approximately 5,250 vehicles in the U.S. Several years ago, some skeptics of car sharing considered potential benefits to be untested claims. Currently, however, as evidenced by experiences related by I-GO Car Sharing, founded in Chicago during March of 2002 by the Center for Neighborhood Technology (CNT), claims have proved to be facts. Carsharing delivers substantial environmental, social, and economic benefits. NumerouspPlanners, government agencies, elected officials, as well as some private sectors, collaborating with GO has seen individual members reduce “their transportation costs by as much as $4,000 a year, and a reduction of 9,725 metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions over the life of the program” (Cohen, Shaheen, & McKenzie, p. 2).
Transportation is a major contributor of CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for approximately 27% of total anthropogenic emissions in the United States and 14% globally…. According to PhillyCarShare, the combination of driving hybrids, driving less, owning fewer cars, and making fewer cold starts can yield an impressive 95% reduction in auto emissions per participant…. I n Europe, carsharing is estimated to reduce the average user’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 40 to 50%
In 2007, Communauto announced a 13,000-ton reduction in CO2 emissions as a result of its 11,000 carsharing users in the province of Quebec, Canada….Each carsharing user reduces his or her distance traveled by car by 2,900 kilometers per year on average. Furthermore, they anticipate with a potential market of 139,000 households in Quebec that annual CO2 emission reductions could be as high as 168,000 tons per year…. (Cohen, Shaheen, & McKenzie, p. 3-4)
Incentivizing Public Transportation
Plain understandable information needs to be easily accessible for diverse audiences to enhance the support of individuals in crusade to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. “To be factored into everyday decision making routines, information must be provided at a time and place and in a standardized format that encourage its use by companies, investors, customers, business partners, and the public at large (Fagotto, & Graham, 2007, Â¶ 1). Information regarding emissions information could be sent to customers with utility bills, spotlighted on product stickers, posted at a variety of locations, and presented on Websites, as well as in TV infomercials.
In “Breaking car use habits: The effectiveness of a free one-month travelcard,” John Thogersen, and E. Berit Moller (2008) stress that choices to utilize public transport instead of cars prove signigicant. Approximatly 1,000 car drivers, who participated in this study received a free one-month travelcard. Results confirmed the results Thogersen, and Moller predicted; that the intervention significantly impacted drivers’ use of public transport, while is additionally neutralized car driving habits’ impact on the choice method. Four months after the experiment, albeit use of public transport by the experimental subjects decreased and no longer exceeded that of the control subjects. Findings confirm that given the current price-quality relationships of the various options, even though a car driver chooses his/her travel mode habitually, his/her final choice proves consistent with his/her informed preferences.
Margaret Walls and Peter Nelson (2004) note modest results from their study reported in “Telecommuting and emissions reductions: Evaluating results from the ecommute program.” along with reviewing relevant literature. These authors analyze the ecommute data they describe in their study, and simultaneously assess data from a 2002 survey that the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) conducted of participating telecommuters and nontelecommuters. During 1999, Walls and Nelson (2004). Report, Congress passed the National Air Quality and Telecommuting Act, which established pilot telecommuting programs in five major U.S. metropolitan areas. The purpose expressly aimed to study the feasibility of addressing air quality concerns through teleworking. The following significant goals and objectives to be achieved in the program included:
Ascertaining the viability of developing, testing, and promoting economic incentives, specifically including emissions credits that may be tradable;
building partnerships within U.S. communities to address air quality, congestion, and quality-of-life issues associated with teleworking;
defining and sharpening regulatory and statutory issues necessary to promote air emissions trading incentives, including mechanisms for cross-sector emissions trading;
developing and evaluating methods for calculating reductions in emissions of precursors of ground-level ozone and greenhouse gases achieved through reductions in vehicle miles traveled; and gathering important data and information about transportation, urban planning, and the environmental impacts of telework. (Walls, & Nelson, 2004)
Chicago, Washington, D.C., Houston, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia constituted the original five metropolitan areas in the program, which began in June 2001. By March 2004, when the “ecommute” program ended, 49 companies with 535 employees had participated.
Denver replaced Chicago when it dropped out of the program in 2000.
Walls and Nelson (2004) recount that total emissions reductions were not dramatically reduced.
Denver, with the majority of telecommuters of the five cities, “prevented only one to 1.5 tons of VOCs and NOx between June 2001 and March 2004” (Walls, & Nelson, p. 24). Walls and Nelson stress, however, the potential of the program could be much greater. Even without enormous increases in the number of workers telecommuting, Walls and Nelson calculate that 25 tons of VOCs (and nearly as much NOx) could be reduced per year in every city. Accomplishing this goal would only require less than 1% of the workforce working at home one to two days each week. Business Incentives; Telecommuting Markus Robert, and Maria Brjesson (2006) identify a number of benefits, a company and employee may obtain from telecommuting in “Company Incentives and Tools for Promoting Telecommuting.” In telecommuting, an employee uses any desk in an open office space; reducing office space.
As the employee works from home, saving the company office space, the employer considers compensation for the use of the employee’s home by returning some of the savings to the telecommuter. Along with telecommuting possessing the potential to save the employee time and mitigate some of the pressure the employee experiences from traffic pressure during his/her work commuting, it also save the company costs, and proffers the opportunity to contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Disadvantages noted during the study by Robert, and Brjesson (2006) among the employees preferring not to telecommute more include lack of regular contact with colleagues, and slower home computer equipment. Two other areas that may hinder employees from telecommuting include manager’s permission and the suitability of the employee’s work task(s). Inexperience of either/both the manager and employee could also factor into telecommuting not being readily accepted. Robert, and Brjesson note that a majority of the employees they surveyed who preferred to telecommute, also related becoming more efficient and saving time when telecommuting.
Congestion pricing as seen in London London’s success with its unique congestion pricing program, the first in a major European city, indicates congestion pricing may become a more politically feasible option in other cities in other countries. In “London Congestion Pricing Implications for Other Cities,” Todd Litman (2004) recounts that on February 17, 2003, with the aim to reduce traffic congestion and raise revenues to fund transport improvements, London, England began to charge a fee for individuals to drive private automobiles in its central area during weekdays. This effort did in fact significantly reduce traffic congestion, while it simultaneously improved bus and taxi service, as well as, generated a significant amount of revenues for the city. Initial resistance to the program decreased, and currently public acceptance has grown to support the program. Planners expect to expand the pricing program to additional segments of London, as well as to other cities in the U.K.
Communities could benefit by adapting the four dimensions of the project noted in their study, Paul Parker, Ian H. Rowlands, and Daniel Scott (2003) assert in “Innovations to Reduce Residential Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: An Integrated Approach.”
According to these authors, the integrated approach with researchers in energy studies joining their colleagues in other areas of resource and environmental management to encourage increased integration in research and policy implementation provides an effective way to counter the low implementation rates some policies experience.
The four dimensions of the integrated approach Parker, Rowlands, and Scott examined consisted of disciplinary, scalar, stakeholders and issues.
The integrated approach stressed multiple disciplines, as social factors, prove vial in assessing energy-saving opportunities.
Climate change spotlights the significance of scalar issues, as global atmospheric balances change, as aggregate individual behavior affect them. Solutions to the global environmental problem(s) require local, national and international agreements and actions.
The inclusion of multiple stakeholders impacts the success of the local project’s goal(s), and enhances the potential to effectively counter barriers to action.
Integrating multiple issues in a single plan/projects, such as ones with the goal to reduce GHG emissions, may prove to enhance their potential to be effective. (Parker, Rowlands, & Scott, 2003)
Ultimately, Parker, Rowlands, and Scott (2003) concur that the need for integration in energy studies with local plans proves worthwhile.
Growing Interest Car driving frequently constitutes “the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes” (Thogersen, & Moller, 2008).
Current interest in cleaner and greener auto technology, according to Jim Motavalli (2007) in “Cleaner cars are coming, reports E – the Environmental Magazine,” as well as choices that need to be made, are at a zenith. “From fuel cells to plug-in hybrids, the industry is showing more research and development zeal than at any time since the halcyon days of 1900, when gasoline, steam and electric vehicles (EVs) were competing in the marketplace” (Motavalli, p. 24).
General Motors (GM) reportedly manufactured the first plug-in hybrid production commitment in the U.S., and currently is developing a new propulsion system to further positive progress in combating greenhouse gas emissions. Despite progress in some areas by GM, cities such as London and Chicago, Motavalli (2007) asserts, a number of consumers remain confused regarding the potential technologies relating to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, much information being related in this area is either missing vital facts or blatantly wrong. To make better choices for the environment in the future, consumers, as well as planners for the city of Denver need to ensure they plan a method to obtain the best possible information. During the next chapter of this study, the methodology, the researcher asserts, in the context of this study’s focus, the case study methodology proved to be the best choice for managing information.
It is a bad plan that admits of no modification” www.bartleby.com/100/707.html” Publius Syrus (42 B.C.) (Syrus, as cited in Bartlett, 2000)
The basic plan for this Capstone, as the researcher examined concerns evolving from greenhouse gasses, and characteristics of the successful plans other cities have incorporated to reduce those environmental challenges did not require major modifications. This researcher initially began this Capstone project for the City and County of Denver, focusing on a primary goal in their Denver Climate Action plan, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Denver through city support of alternative transportation by either incentivizing or looking for other ways to use alternative transportation. Through the process of completing the Capstone, as the quote by Syrus basically notes at this chapter’s start, however, the researcher came to appreciate the truth that: A good plan admits and acclimates to modifications (Bartlett, 2000).
Research Design and Methodology Even though the basic concept of the researcher’s initial plan remained constant during the Capstone, the researcher readily admits at times having to modify and/or expand particular parts of the plan. In the researcher’s quest to uncover common characteristics of successful plans relating to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the researcher, for example, determined to incorporate the use of the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research, to address the primary research question, and the four sub-questions. Options for qualitative studies, according to Leedy and Ormrod (2005), include five different qualitative research designs for researchers to choose from.. These options include:
Grounded theory study, and Content analysis.
After assessing the aforementioned available options, the researcher chose the case study methodology, as it best fits the course the researcher had determined to follow. M. Dereshiwsky (1999) explains in “Electronic Textbook – Let Us Count the Ways: Strategies for Doing Qualitative Research” that the research question(s) constitute the heart and soul of a study’s investigation (Master Plan section, Â¶ 1). Dereshiwsky (1999) also presents information Catherine Marshall and Gretchen Rossman developed, as he contends this information to be superior to some to match up research questions and designs, with qualitative data collection procedures (Master Plan section, Â¶ 3).
Basically, a case study research design doubles as a blueprint for the researcher to plan his/her study. At the start of this case study, the researcher developed a set of questions to will address through research process. Ultimately, the researcher presents conclusions about the answers addressed by the study’s questions (Case Studies, 2008). With modification, the researcher found the case study to prove helpful for keeping the study’s focus in line. Dereshiwsky (1999) explains that during the implementation of the case study methodology, as the researcher examines a single or small participant pool, he/she draws conclusions only about that participant or group; only in that specific context” (Case Studies 2008, Introduction and Definition section). This proved true for the researcher in this Capstone.
During the course of the Capstone, the researcher explored a number of different sources to address the designated research questions, which ultimately led the researcher to ascertain several generalizable truths relating to this study’s focus. The researcher utilized several search engines, including, but not limited to the following to secure information:
Questia Media database;
Highbeam Research database;
Sage Publications database.
Although the existence of one particular universal method or design for a researcher to utilize for his/her case study is not possible, case studies depict a universally accepted method for exploring a myriad of various topics. Robert K. Yin points out that, along with utilizing five particular basic components, it is vital that researchers clearly articulate his/her goals for his/her study; determine the appropriate method(s) to be used to access information and/or collect data, to ultimately proffer considerations to the study’s conclusion (Case Studies 2008). Yin notes that the five following study components effectively structure a research design:
A study’s propositions (if any).
A study’s units of analysis.
The logic linking of the data to the propositions.
The criteria for interpreting the findings. (Yin, as cited in Case Studies 2008)
Plans Meriting Modifications
Ultimately, using particular study components to effectively structure a case study research design reflects “logic that ultimately links the data to be collected and the conclusions to be drawn to the initial questions of the study” (Case Studies 2008). Structuring a Capstone, the researcher asserts, also mandates the researcher plan his/her methodology, yet simultaneously be open to positive modifications. During the next section of this study, the Analysis, the researcher relates findings that samplings noted in the literature review revealed. These findings, unlike the methodology, albeit, do not merit modifications, per se, as they reflect facts rather than manipulate them.
To look at the cross-section of any plan of a big city is to look at something like the section of a fibrous tumor”
Frank Lloyd Wright (1869-1959), U.S. architect (Wright, as cited in Columbia World of Quotations, 1996).
When a physician suspects a patient has a fibrous tumor, he/she refers the patient to a specialist, who in turn, more closely examines the “problem” specimen. This analysis chapter looks at particular cross-sections of this study’s problem, which could figuratively equate to a fibrous tumor: The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
Considerations for Denver
Information regarding negative environmental consequences from greenhouse gas emissions, along with positive information reflecting counters to this critical concern could be sent to customers with the utility bills, spotlighted on numerous product stickers, posted at prominent places, such as entrances at a variety of locations, and presented on company Websites. TV infomercials could also enhance the educational effort.
Figure1 depicts relates a number of ways Denver could relate relevant information egarding greenhouse gas emissions.
Figure 1: Avenues for Promoting Relevant Information (adapted from Fagotto, & Graham, 2007)
Potential Opportunities Although the reduction of green house gas emissions were not noted during the study Robert, and Brjesson (2006) conducted, the researcher perceives this to be a potential added benefit. Telecommuting possess the potential to save the employee time and mitigate some of the pressure the employee experiences from traffic pressure during his/her work commuting. Telecommuting could also save the company costs, and proffers the opportunity to positively contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Figure 2 depicts potential opportunities relating to telecommuting.
Figure 2: Potential Benefits from Telecommuting (adapted from Robert, & Brjesson, 2006).
The Four Dimensions Integrated Approach
Figure 3 portrays the four dimensions Parker, Rowlands, and Scott (2003) recommend planners consider implementing in their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emission.
Figure 3: Four Recommended Dimensions Relating to GHG (adapted from Parker, Rowlands, & Scott, 2003).
Characteristics in Successful Projects/Strategies
Figure 4 portrays a number of characteristics in successful projects/strategies, the researcher asserts, that merit consideration by the city of Denver in crafting its plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Figure 4: Aiming to Craft a Positive Plan (adapted from this study).
During the final chapter of this Capstone, the researcher recounts cross-sections of information covered in this study. In turn, the researcher hopes that Denver will have gained additional insight as to better plan to “cut out” or decrease the size of some of the fibers connecting to the problem of greenhouse gasses.
If you plan for a year, plant a seed.
If for ten years, plant a tree.
If for a hundred years, teach the people.
When you sow a seed once, you will reap a single harvest.
When you teach the people, you will reap a hundred harvests”
Kuan Chung (d. 645 B.C.) (Chung, as cited in Respectfully Quoted…, 2003).
Considerations for the City of Denver in its quest to produce a plan to sow a seed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were explored during this Capstone. As this study embraced a thematic arrangement of the literature, particular themes examined included existing projects, common characteristics noted in successful projects or strategies, approaches to counter green house gas and programs meriting particular consideration.
Existing Projects that incentivize the use of alternative transportation to reduce energy use, traffic congestion, and emissions of green house gases and other pollutants include
Evaluation Data… (did not have research for this)
Cost Data….(did not have research for this)
Characteristics in Successful Projects/Strategies, the literature notes,
Approaches to counter green house gas
Emissions, as well as areas for concern
Public policy-making considerations included the concept of a mobility pass program as diversification of travel choices through transit agencies may attract individuals, and increase participation in public transport systems. Other relevant considerations for programs include carsharing, incentivizing public transportation, business incentives for compressed work weeks or telecommuting, and congestion pricing as seen in London.
Conclusion Along with combining resources, the researcher concludes the need for the city of Denver to Educate Individuals and Organizations;
Implement Appropriate Charges for Abuses;
Provide Incentives for Positive Changes.
To complement and enhance the contemporary consumer’s growing interest in cleaner and greener auto technology, which in turn will contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the researcher concludes, consumers need credible, relevant information to help dissipated the current confused regarding this critical concern.
Having access to information providing accurate, credible information/fact will empower individuals, including those crafting the plan for Denver to reduce GHG emissions, to make better choices for the environment, not only for the future, but for today.
Auston, Ione, MLS, Cahn, Marjorie A., MA, & Selden, Catherine R., MLS. (2004). Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Office of the Forum for Quality and Effectiveness in Health Care, Forum Methodology Conference Presentation. United States National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/litsrch.html
Bartlett, John, comp.(2000). Familiar Quotations, 10th ed, rev. And enl. By Nathan Haskell Dole. Boston: Little, Brown, 1919; Bartleby.com. Retrieved February 23, 2009, from www.bartleby.com/100/
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved February 23, 2009, from www.bartleby.com/66/
Capstone Project Frequently Asked Questions. (2008). University of Washington. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.son.washington.edu/faculty/support/DNPFAQ_faculty_capstone.aspwhatCase Studies 2008, (2008). Colorado State University. February 23, 2009, at http://writing.colostate.edu/index.cfm
Cohen, Adam, Shaheen, Susan, & and McKenzie, Ryan. (1 May 2008). Carsharing: A Guide for Local Planners. Institute of Transportation Studies. University of California. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.its.ucdavis.edu
Dereshiwsky, M.. (1999). Electronic Textbook – Let Us Count the Ways: Strategies for Doing Qualitative Research. Northern Arizona University. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~mid/edr725/class/strategies/strategies/reading2-11.html
Litman, Todd. (18 February 2004). London Congestion Pricing Implications for Other Cities. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Retrieved February 23, 2009, from www.vtpi.orgMotavalli, Jim. (2007). Cleaner cars are coming, reports E – the Environmental Magazine. All Green Magazine. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.state.ct.us/ott/PolicyAndEducation/YDYW2008/Track2ClimateChange/Background%20Resources,%20Best%20Practices%20and%20Further%20Reading/Cleaner%20Cars.pdf
Parker, Paul,. Rowlands, Ian H. & Scott, Daniel. (2003). Innovations to Reduce Residential Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: An Integrated Approach. The Canadian Geographer 47.2. Questia. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002552385
Rea, Louis, & Ryan. (2007, November) Effectiveness of the mobility pass program in San Diego. California PATH Research Report. San Diego State University Foundation. University of California, Berkeley CA.
Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations Requested from the Congressional Research Service. (2003). Library of Congress, Washington D.C.: Bartleby.com, Retrieved February 23, 2009, from www.bartleby.com/73/.
Robert, Markus, & Brjesson, Maria (2006). Company Incentives and Tools for Promoting Telecommuting. Environment and Behavior; 38; 521. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://eab.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/38/4/521
Simpson, James B., comp. (1988). Simpson’s Contemporary Quotations. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved February 23, 2009, from www.bartleby.com/63/
Thogersen, John, & Moller, E. Berit. (22 February 2008) Breaking car use habits: The effectiveness of a free one-month travelcard. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Walls, Margaret, & Nelson, Peter. (2004, December). Telecommuting and emissions reductions: Evaluating results from the ecommute program. Resources for the Future. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.rff.org.
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Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!