Information and network security as well as cyber terrorism cause extreme challenges that now pose a threat to not only private information, but also national security. Cyber terrorism is the use of computer networking to bring down essential national infrastructures such as government operations, energy, and transportation installations. It is also aimed at intimidating either a civilian population or an entire government. The principle behind cyber-terrorism is that as basic infrastructure and countries become more dependent on computer networks in order to operate efficiently, they face new vulnerabilities. A hostile group or country could explore such vulnerabilities to enter a poorly secured network and interrupt or bring down important infrastructure (Buchan, 2010).
Cyber terrorism would be an attractive option for modern day terrorists who hold in high esteem its level of anonymity, media appeal, and potential to mete out massive damage, as well as its psychological effect. However, cyber fears have been a little bit exaggerated. Cyber attacks on essential parts of the national infrastructure are common but terrorist groups have not instigated them. Apart from that, they have not sought after inflicting the kind of damage that would be termed as cyber terrorism (Collin, 2012).
Even though cyber-terrorism phobia and mania may endure exaggeration and even manipulation by analysts and the press, it cannot be denied or ignored. It is believed that the success on the war against terrorist groups could make them to rapidly turn on to cybercrime, for instance, cyber terrorism. In addition, as a more computer savvy and robust cohort of terrorists comes of age, the danger is likely to increase (Holland, 2011).
Cyber Attacks Versus Routine Failure
The protection of critical infrastructure portents a new set of challenges for national security. No country can accept any attack on interrupted service or essential infrastructure. If cyber attacks do not cause damages that rise above the standard of routine disruptions experienced in every economy, it is of no significant threat to national security. On a national level where hundreds or even dozens of various systems offer essential infrastructure, services failure is considered to be routine in nature. Cyber terrorists need to launch massive multiple and escalated attacks in order to create terror, obtain strategic objectives, or have a perceptible impact. For major essential infrastructure, multiple sustained attacks are not feasible for terrorists or hackers.
Cyber terrorists mostly target dams utilized for power generation and water storage. It is believed that if an intruder disables and compromises security systems commanding a dam’s floodgates or its substations that commands over 200,000 electric power voltage, he could shut up an entire nation. This is because he could employ virtual tools to demolish property worth millions and many lives. A cyber terrorist needs to carry out multiple sustained attacks in order to gain any premeditated benefits (Collin, 2012).
Cyber weapons would only be attractive to terrorists if they are carried out concurrently with physical attacks. For instance, in a case where they compromise a water supply system’s network, the attack could be severe if they also cause fires and deny firefighters access to the water. Most cyber attacks are more of an annoyance than destruction. This is because they may disrupt power supply but not at levels observed for a physical attack (Holland, 2011).
A recent internet attack illustrated the implication of cyber attacks vulnerabilities. In October 2002, for a period spanning one hour, anonymous individuals launched a distributed service denial attack on thirteen root servers that form the foundation of domain systems that govern internet addresses. The attack had no impact on users since it was invisible. Eight out of the thirteen root servers were shut as a consequence of the attack. Internet performance was not degraded due to the attack on the DNS system. This is because DNS data required for daily internet operations undergo daily updates and are stored locally. Very few requests need assistance from root servers. Apart from that, the fact that five root servers out of thirteen survived that attack means that DNS servers are not susceptible to attacks (Whiteback, 2013).
On the other hand, many users in the western USA experienced critical delays immediately after the attack because their service providers faced routing challenges. Although the DNS attack disrupted services, it had no impact on national security. As much as the internet may have a few cases of failure, it was designed to be a full-bodied communications network that is able to continue with communications even after strategic nuclear exchanges. Internet protocols and packet switching were harnessed to sustain communication even after eliminating certain nodes in the network. Apart from that, computer networks depend on high capacity communications that are somehow secure from cyber attacks. Survivability has also been enhanced by the introduction of new technologies (Whitelaw, 2009).
Most, if not all, economic and manufacturing activities are rapidly becoming dependent on computer networks. Industrial and cyber espionage have become new threats to these economic activities. However, mixed reactions continue to be reported from the corporate sector concerning the impact of these attacks. In 2001, a virus infected over 900 computers at Ford Motors. Ford received over 130,000 emails that were contaminated with viruses before pulling down its network, but the company reported that only limited damage was caused by the attack (Keith, 2005).
On the other hand, in July 2013, five men including four Russians and one Ukrainian were indicted in a New Jersey court for swindling over $300,000,000. This entailed a well-orchestrated cybercrime syndicate that took place in a period spanning five years: from 2005 to 2012. The men allegedly compromised the network systems of several companies including Hannaford, NASDAQ, Dow Jones, 7-eleven and JCP (Web). The Attorney General who prosecuted this case asserted that this crime was a threat to both the economic welfare, the privacy of individuals, as well as national security (Whiteback, 2013).
Evaluation of cases of this nature in relation to cyber terrorism has been complicated by the inclination to primarily attribute cyber occurrences to terrorist activities when their real source is few individual hackers. When in 1990 the US DOD network system was compromised, everyone in the government pointed a finger to China or Iraq and even prepared for war as these were potential threats. However, further investigations determined that the source of the attack were two idle high school students in California. It has become challenging to know if the real source of cybercrime is terrorists, bored teenagers, foreign states, or criminals. Nonetheless, a survey of its occurrences has consistently indicated that bored teenagers and criminals are the potential sources of these attacks. Since vulnerability to cybercrime is likely to increase as societies move into more computer settings, there is a need for everyone to take precautions to avoid the loss of personal data that could lead to huge financial losses.
Buchan, Glenn C., (2010). Implications of Information Vulnerabilities for Military Operations, in Khalilzad and White, The Changing Role of Information in Warfare, Rand. 17,408-417
Collin, B., (2012). The Future of Cyberterrorism, Crime and Justice International, 43, 15-18
Holland, J. (2011). Investigators look into how library computers may have linked terrorists. South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Miami, FL.15 (30), 4-12
Keith Bradsher, (May 8, 2005) “With Its E-Mail Infected, Ford Scrambled and Caught Up,” The New York Times, 132, 27-32.
Whiteback, C. (2013). Virtual environments: Ethical issues and significant confusions. Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2, 147-152.
Whitelaw, K. (2009). Terrorists on the Web: Electronic ‘Safe Haven’. US News & World Report, 124, 46-48.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!