Covid 19 comparison between Mexico and Cuba

 

THE COVID-19 COMPARISON BETWEEN MEXICO AND CUBA

 

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Early last year, new cases of the pandemic were reported in various continents, which later spread to various countries. It was then declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) immediately after declaring the disease as a Public Health Emergency of International concern. World Health Organization confirmed that the novel coronavirus was the leading cause of respiratory illness affecting a section of Wuhan City, China (Dong & Bouey, 2020). After the 1918 flu pandemic, 2020 was another year to be recognized because of its disastrous health disturbance. The year will also be remembered because of the economic shock after the great depression in the year 1930.

Moreover, affected countries shall experience the economic effects of COVID for some time in various countries. So far, the disease has affected about 10% of all the planet’s population either directly or indirectly. The disease spreads through droplets of respiration from an infected person to a healthy person’s mucous membrane (eyes, ears, and nose). The droplets are produced by sneezing, coughing, or coughing. It proves that the distance between the individual plays a lot in the infection rate (Morens et al. 2020). With the average, some European countries, the US, Mexico, and Cuba, form the more significant part. This article, however, compares and contrasts the COVID 19 pandemic between Mexico and Cuba.

MEXICO

The first COVID 19 case in Mexico was confirmed on 28th Feb 2020 by the authorities after Brazil being the first country in Latin America to record the first case. The case was imported from Italy, and 45 days later, the toll number of infections rises to 3000. A year later, more than 2 million infections have been recorded, with which there are thousands of deaths. On 21st Jan 2020, the first case was confirmed, after which the disease was declared a public health emergency. After four days (3rd Feb), WHO released a Strategic Preparedness Response Unit. COVID 19 was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The disease has spread throughout the country at a faster rate due to its mode of transmission. The transmission rate, however, differs from each country due to the existing health care system. For Mexico, their health care system is in the middle level, and thus it determined the rate at which transmission spreads throughout the country. The regular results were given by the National Epidemiology Surveillance System (SS). From the statistics, transmission through body contact with the infected person was 44%.

The country’s infection rate has been stable and constant until the middle age victims formed the more significant part. The infection curve of Mexico has two peaks of infections; the first is in July 2020, and the second in January 2021. Immediately after WHO declares COVID 19 a pandemic in March, eight estates closed the schools following the infection rate and how the disease kills. Several countries in Latin America imposed restrictions on inter-country movement to slow the rate of infection. On 18th Mar, the first death of a COVID patient was recorded. The country is the 11th largest country in terms of population size. The country was ranked the third country in mortality rate after the United States and Brazil. Mexico is a country with a high infection-fatality ratio and high mortality rates per population (World Bank). These high ratios reflect how Mexico adopts a stringent testing regime. The infections and deaths were distributed based on the individual’s characteristics and the region. Cases recorded that infection rates and mortality rates were among the middle age and elderly individuals. In some regions, the rate of infections was higher among the middle age while death rates are high among the elderly. Averagely the Mexico’s population was comprised of 29 for middle age, 65 for elderly. Most European countries and the USA had a high percentage of the elderly population which predisposed them to high mortality rates (World Bank).

The high prevalence of the COVID 19 (SARS-CoV-2) is due to various underlying factors among the citizens. This includes diabetes, obesity, and heart diseases, increased the chance of infection and death rates- 18500 by the end of Feb 2020. The vulnerabilities associated with individual health conditions and the country’s health system depict the kind of control measure to be adopted to restrict the transmission of the virus. The presence of comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes, obesity, among others, was confirmed to be the highest factors causing 66% of new infection cases. The quality of the medical also determines the infection rate of the disease. Mexican cities like Mexico City, Monterrey, and Guadalajara are the most affected with the highest numbers of infections. It has affected the country’s economic status because the cities were the economic hub of Mexico. Through flights, the disease is spread from other parts of the country (Kutralam et al., 2021).

Various epidemiological designs have been developed to guide various cities’ health sectors in cubing rapid infection of the disease. Some of the models designed have not been limiting the location movements. As per the statistics, the infection spread of disease in Mexico is due to domestic movements from the hotspot regions to others. Also, the high population status of the country has ensured the high spread of the disease. The study found out that the vulnerabilities of various Mexican cities are due to population factors and proximity to airports. The cities with frequent air travel have shown advanced rates of infections (Rojas 2020). For instance, Mexico City and Tijuana have shown the highest rates of infections. The lower levels of intensive care units are observed across more than 50 cities. The cities lack proper health care infrastructure for fighting the pandemic (Kutralam et al., 2021).

The country has adopted restrictive measures as advised by WHO to curb the infection. Restriction of movement from one state to another was employed, resulting in the reduction of infection rates. Moreover, other measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and sanitizers have also proved to reduce the infection rates in the country (Andrus et al., 2020). According to Database S6, without social distancing, the infection could rose to 13 million cases. If the rates of infections rise, as in the case of Wuhan (China), all the Mexican cities shall not be in a position to control and manage the infection.

CUBA

In mid-march 2020, Cuba recorded the first case of COVID 19. However, the country had prepared a national response from late January 2020 to curb the disease. Like any other country, coronavirus has affected the health care system and other sectors of the country. Tourism is the leading cause of the spread in the country. It has resulted in the social and economic complication of Cuba (Chaple & Dura 2020). The country has imposed some of the measures like quarantine, but all is in vain. As of 28th Dec, Cuba had recorded 11 205 new cases and 142 deaths. Several factors have catalyzed the advanced infection rates, like high poverty levels, flawed health care system, high unemployment rates, and supply shortages. Cuba’s plan for prevention and control of the disease includes; training health workers, reinforcing surveillance in Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), and construction of laboratories to aid in the COVID 19 test. The country has been employing social media for sensitization against the pandemic.

WHO found the control plan of the country to be much efficient by experts because of contact tracing, comprehensive ARI surveillance, and a rational diagnosis program. The country also has utilized the mandate of mask-wearing and keeping of social distance through movement restriction and banning social gatherings. The pandemic response unit has been mobilized by policies facilitated to control the disease for immediate isolation of the confirmed cases. However, Cuba’s government did not take action after the first case was confirmed because it initially failed to gauge the adversities of the infection. Conversely, the country has adopted local journalism structures for active censorship about the disease (Andrus et al., 2020).

As with other countries (Mexico), the pandemic has had a disproportionate impact on certain groups and the population of Cuba. It has resulted in a particular group of individuals being more vulnerable than others because of their characteristics and social status. For instance, about 80% of older Cubans are accounting for 86% of coronavirus deaths. Also, the retired Cubans were more vulnerable to the disease because of their fixed and insufficient pension. Women were more vulnerable psychologically than men. They have high levels of fear (3.5) times more than men. Poverty levels also played a role in determining the infection rates among Cubans (Tedesco & Diamint 2020).

Cuba has an unequivocally viable health care system that various governments have envied. The country early implemented the universal health care system, low doctor-patient ratio, and low infant rate.

Its health care system is also renowned for international health care diplomacy, which has sent several health care personnel to various countries globally during the health crisis. However, sending several numbers of Cuban doctors abroad is that hospitals have been forced to create more treatment groups compromising non-specialists doctors to fight the disease. Inadequate health facilities of Cuba have made them increase emphasis on medical diplomacy at the expense of domestic health care.

The COVID 19 effects across the countries range from social, economic, and political challenges. The country’s strategies of being a renowned country for universal health care have made it inefficient for mitigating the virus. The country has used COVID 19 to punish the activists who seek the populace by accessing the information regarding the infection rate. However, the country has intended to introduce an economic reform where it shall help alleviate the financial and psychological hardships (Jorna et al., 2021).

In conclusion, both countries have experienced adverse effects of the disease. Fortunately, they have employed the regulation measures proposed by WHO to fight the spread of the infection. The recent discovery of the vaccine sheds light on the countries’ economic resurrection, and the regular operation is restored.

References

Andrus, J. K., Evans-Gilbert, T., Santos, J. I., Guzman, M. G., Rosenthal, P. J., Toscano, C., … & Breman, J. G. (2020). Perspectives on battling COVID-19 in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 103(2), 593.

Chaple, EB, & Dur, F. (2020). First historical-epidemiological approach to COVID-19 in Cuba. Annals of the Cuban Academy of Sciences, 10 (2), 862.

Dong, L., & Bouey, J. (2020). Public mental health crisis during COVID-19 pandemic, China. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(7), 1616.

Jorna Calixto, AR, Vliz Martnez, PL, Vidal Ledo, MJ, & Vliz Jorna, AL (2021). Management of health risks in the confrontation with COVID-19 in Cuba. Cuban Journal of Public Health , 46 , e2696.

Kutralam-Muniasamy, G., Prez-Guevara, F., Roy, P. D., Elizalde-Martnez, I., & Shruti, V. C. (2021). Impacts of the COVID-19 lockdown on air quality and its association with human mortality trends in megapolis Mexico City. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 14(4), 553-562.

Morens, D. M., Breman, J. G., Calisher, C. H., Doherty, P. C., Hahn, B. H., Keusch, G. T., … & Taubenberger, J. K. (2020). The origin of COVID-19 and why it matters. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 103(3), 955-959.

Rojas, I. (2020). On the Economic Benefits and Costs of COVID-19 Mitigation Measures in Mexico. Available at SSRN 3592209.

Tedesco, L., & Diamint, R. (2020). Behind COVID19: Deepening Poverty in Cuba. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 39, 75-78.

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