This chapter has respectively aimed at presenting the conceptual clarification by reviewing the existing literature on Corporate Social Responsibility in Chevron Nigeria and the outcome of the research. The proceeding chapter analyses the whole data collected with the aim of presenting the outcome of the findings that came out from the analysis of the collected data. Before the analysis of the data collected, this chapter covers the analysis method applied and the rationale for its application. The section gives an in-depth explanation why the method was chosen among others. 4.2 The Data Analytical Method:
4.2.1 Thematic Analysis and Justification for its Selection
Thematic analysis was the main data analysis strategy employed in this research. The method was chosen as it offers flexibility approach to analysing different types of qualitative data. Thematic analysis is a process of encoding qualitative information. This process requires identification, analysis, and reporting of themes in data. Normally, themes are considered patterns that are found in data (William, 2006). They not only give a direction to organize and describe collected data, but also enable the researcher to interpret characteristics of the phenomenon. From this perspective, the term theme indicates “a means to get at the notion we are addressing”. One benefit of thematic analysis is flexibility. In other words, the researcher who has diverse theoretical and epistemological orientations can use this analytical method. As a result, it can provide a rich and detailed, yet complex, account of data. The researcher took three steps to analyse data for the case study: (1) becoming familiar with the data, (2) generating initial codes, and (3) making relations and searching themes.
4.2.2 Becoming familiar with the data
The researcher’s initial step was to become familiar with the collected data. In carrying out this, the researcher started reviewing questionnaires, listening and transcribing the interviews and reading the existing literature on Corporate Social Responsibility with keen reference to Chevron Nigeria. The process was to move back and forth between the data and writing; in this case, knowing where to find given information and knowing the kind of data collected (Godfrey, 2005). More importantly, during the first process, the researcher was able to know how to organize the collected data in respect to their relevance.
4.2.3 Generating initial codes
The second step was to generate initial codes. Codes are the most fundamental element of the unprocessed data that can be assessed in a meaningful way concerning the phenomenon. The process of coding enables the researchers identify meaningful data and provide strategies for interpreting data. In the study, the researcher followed a code data strategy suggested by thematic analysis (William, 2006). In the coding process, thematic analysis entails two steps. First, it recommends that researcher start analysis with recognizing, naming, categorizing, and describing phenomena found in the data. This step entailed scrutinizing of each sentence and paragraph with the question ‘what is it about’ and ‘what is being referenced here?”. In the above approach, the researcher focused on the holistic and sententious approach (Godfrey, 2005). After the process, the researcher related each finding found at the first step to each other through a combination of inductive and deductive thinking. The method can be considered effective as it is more selective and highlights approach data. The thematic analysis was employed due to its ease in organizing the codes and understanding the entire picture of the effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on the community in which Chevron Nigeria operates.
As mentioned by Davies (2003), there are two ain ways to create codes; one method id theory-driven code or prior-research-driven code and the other way are data-driven-code. In the case of data-driven codes, themes are dependent on data. In other words, this approach focuses on revealing the meaning of ‘what data says’ relatively free from previous theories and ideas. The theory-driven approach coding is normally used in social science due to its efficiency. The approach is normally applied in cases where the researcher heavily depends on the theoretical framework in research.
The researcher started by coding data using data-driven codes. The method was regarded efficient since it had lower chances of distorting the collected data. However, only one approach could not be applied as the study was also influenced by some theoretical perspectives. Thus, the questionnaires and interview questions were guided by theoretical frameworks (Idemudia, 2006).
4.2.4 Establishing relationships and generating themes
The third step taken by the researcher was to construct relationships among various codes and search themes. As aforementioned, themes are “means to get at the notion the researcher is addressing.” In other words, themes need to capture more integrated and refined ideas of the phenomenon than initial codes (William, 2006). However, this conceptual definition was extremely difficult to apply to real analysis.
One challenging aspect was constructing and understanding relationships among codes and themes. The concepts of codes and themes are not fixed. They seem to be differentiated depending on researchers, research purposes and research questions among other factors. Some words that were taken as initial codes constituted a theme to other researchers. In this study, the researcher found out the themes and code referring to the depth of its connection with the research questions.
4.3 Drawbacks of Thematic Analysis
William 2006 suggests that referring to the thematic analysis flexibility, there is normally the tendency for a researcher to use the method without clear guidelines. It can be challenging for the reader to be sure how and at what stage themes were identified. For instance, it can be hard to judge whether the review would have looked different if an entirely deductive, theoretically-driven approach had been used instead of an inductive approach in which themes emerge’ from the process of analysis. Hence there is the possibility of missing detailed guidance for analysing the data, and this can lead to insufficient analysis in some conditions. The capability can deteriorate into unacceptable subjectivity of the researcher and interviewee and can result to none detailed description of the matter being studied. To minimize the mentioned problem, the researcher at all times tried to link itself the much possible with the detailed steps in the process, and this was essential in reducing the chances of failing into the possible fall.
4.4 Categorizing the Themes
In the stages of analysis, the researcher concentrated on gearing towards being attuned with variety materials collected and organizing the materials as per the content prior to sorting. At this stage, the recorded materials during interviews were carefully selected by the researcher and the contents carefully listened to, notes taken to determine the impacts of Corporate Social Responsibility in Chevron in the local community. All the collected materials were considered to ensure little or no information was lost, and key ideas were noted. While reviewing the combination of literature and notions, themes that appeared and issues which came out consequent of the researcher’s questions were identified and noted. As the researcher became familiar with the data (as suggested in the Thematic analysis process), the data prompted some themes connected in one way or the other which replicated some of the key issues in considerable themes, but which could not be grouped under the key themes because they were complex in nature and some differences that made them look exclusive.
The table below shows the main contents of the major themes
|Major themes||Perceived benefits||Key issues|
|Social factors||Chevron Nigeria embarks on social functions via various methods of which the community in which the company operates are concomitant beneficiaries.||Donations
|Environmental factors||To a given extent, environmental factors are related to Corporate Social Responsibility.||Pollution and reduction or operations leading to pollution
Cleanliness of the Company and the surrounding environs.
Mitigation of hydroelectric production.
|In Nigeria and other developing countries, the use of Corporate Social Responsibility by majority of the companies is for the benefit of the company. They majorly use CSR for profit generation.||Profit Maximization
During the process, four more key issues were identified in addition to the aforementioned issues informed by the research questions and therefore introduced into the interviews. The later identified issues were never dependent and so they are considered significant as they were identified by the respondents. The following table represent the extra four issues indentified during the analysis.
|Theme||Possible consequent effects||Key issues|
|Redundancy crisis||Majority of people in the community in which Chevron Nigeria operates have remained jobless and this has lead to other issues.
|Lack of cordial connection and existence of redundant shut downs||The lives of occupants of the area in which Chevron Nigeria operates and the relations between the community and the Company are affected in various ways.||Hostility
Change in social behaviour
|Reduced living Standards
|Due to the existence of the company in Nigeria, the prices of goods where the company operates has risen and thus the living standards. The local community tends to live above poverty level and some do live in abject poverty.||Reduced eating habit due to high prices of food
Changes in social life
Reduced pattern of expenditure
Low standard of education due to increased food prices
|Health problems||The company refuse has caused various health concerns in the community in which it operates. In some cases, the gaseous products have caused respiratory problem and environmental pollution.||Coughing up
As mentioned earlier, the research took thematic approach in which a given phenomenon is investigated using various sources of evidence. At this point, it is paramount to acknowledge the theoretical positions and values in connection to the information gathered taking into account the fact that there was an attempt to ensure the actual impressions by the participants were noted. On the contrary, the researcher never simply gave voice, because even in giving voice normally there is a piece of information that goes unacknowledged. To incorporate this, the researcher accepted both the unfeasibility and subjectivity of the overall credibility of analysis.
CSR has made a new setting for both businesses and the communities in which the companies operate. This analysis is intended to reflect its effects on the Community in which Chevron Nigeria operates. The analysis of the Company’s relationship with the host community would help in understanding the contributions of Chevron Nigeria’s corporate social responsibility and the host community.
4.5 Outcome of the Analysis
In addressing the social aspects of the impact of Social Corporate responsibility in Chevron Nigeria, a number of themes were found dominant. Interviewees from Chevron Nigeria reported a variety of projects initiated by the company in Education, Agriculture, Community development and SME Developments where the local community has benefited. For example, an interviewee in the company reported that the company has CSR issues at all times. He further said that the company has been committed to giving the host community social advantages to encourage the development. The social advantages are clearly seen and encapsulated in various high profiles of infrastructure projects. As stated by the respondent, Chevron Nigeria makes donations yearly to the host community and surrounding hospitals. The respondent further quoted Central Hospital and Braithwaite Memorial Hospital as the direct beneficiaries of CSR in Chevron Nigeria. Additionally, the respondent further stated that the company is known in sports and athletics sponsorship and various projects in education (though not stated).
The respondent (employee in the company) believed that Corporate Social Responsibility in the company’s engagement in helping and supporting the government, the community in which the company operates and other organizations (nongovernmental). The respondent tends to emphasize that the help has been one way in that the company has been helping the community without expecting something back. Her description of how the company has been helping the local communities and organization (government included) clearly coincides with Carroll (2000) arguments that companies voluntarily incorporate social matters in their operations.
The idea of CSR is evidenced form the studies carried out in the past, and it indicates that CSR is one of ethical and moral considerations and the company management ought to take into consideration the social effects of CSR activities in making decisions in the company. The arguments are supported by other respondent (in a management position) arguments who stated that the company has progressively reformed its CSR agendas to ensure they are to the international standards. In the past years, the company has made significant contributions to infrastructure development and supported the Nigeria government financially as stated by the second respondent. He further stated that the company has improved the health care of their employees as well as introduced pension schemes. According to him, the company has never relaxed in making efforts towards sustaining the host community and its employees.
The respondent indicates that the advantages of the CSR on Chevron have been mainly felt by the local community and its employees. It is essential to note from the arguments of the two respondents that in Company’s CSR practices appear to be externally influenced. The company does not seem to benefit from its on CSR (based on the two arguments). The respondents have indicated that the company invests heavily on the local community and organizations voluntarily. It is significant to take into account that the second respondent’s arguments can be in line with the stakeholder’s view of CSR. In that the stakeholders try to find out suppose there are any corresponding advantages as a result of CSR in Chevron. As the respondent considered the company as benefiting the local community economically, the respondent does not perceive it as part of the company’s normal business. This insight is also presenting in the information given by another employee of the company (respondent) while illustrating the effects of Corporate Social responsibility on the host community. Equally important on a secondary source, the respondent stated CSR is aimed at making sure that the environment is not affected due to company’s operations or an individual’s activities. In this regard, the respondent noted that Chevron Nigeria had done all it can to ensure that the surrounding environment was safe form pollution. The company has further initiated activities that encouraged the government to fight pollution and so the company took an active role in ensuring the environment was safe.
According to this secondary source, the company (Chevron Nigeria) is committed to helping the local communities. The company’s capability is vastly rooted in Chevron’s efforts to employ achievable policies that will assist in taking necessary measures to prevent imminent trepidation (Idemudia, 2006). The local Nigeria community is thus the beneficiary of Social Corporate Responsibility of Chevron Nigeria and the effects of CSR on the environment can be further seen through ways in which the company minimizes pollution.
Another fundamental issue that came up in the case study in finding out the effects of Social Corporate Responsibility in Chevron Nigeria on the community in which the company operates was illustrated by another respondent. The respondent who happened to be a member of Chevron staff said that there was evidence that CSR activities in the company’s operations and that its effects are felt among the company workers and the area in which Chevron Nigeria operates. According to the staff member, CSR has been among the key practices undertaken by the company.
According to the respondent and as confirmed by Post et al. (2002), Chevron Nigeria takes care of its workers and the area in which the company operates. In other words, CSR in Chevron is more of reaction referring to keeping the obligations. The arguments concur with another company’s member arguments that Chevron Nigeria is socially responsible to the local community. This respondent views the social function of Chevron Nigeria as a strategic to create a reputable imagine among global countries. On the contrary, the respondent notes there have been various damages accompanied by the functions carried out by the company.
The respondent indicated a keen understanding of social functions of Chevron Nigeria and its impacts on the local community both negatively and positively. According to him, the operations carried out by the company are not out of conviction. According to the respondent, there exists evidences referring to social projects and health services matters carried out by the company, although they are not enough to demonstrate the extent of responsibility of them do not reflect the areas that are significant to the sounding environments of the company.
In a nut shell, there are various areas in which the respondents gave similar information concerning CSR on Chevron Company (Idemudia, 2006). This means that the company must e making significant assistance to the community in which the company operates. Majority of the CSR effects were viewed in relation to their current impacts on the community.
4.6 Permeated Themes
- 6.1. Redundancy Crisis
Redundancy is the condition where one without a job. As evident in the research outcome, most of the locals where the company operates are left jobless since the company occupies a large area which could be used as agricultural land. The negative effects of the company like pollution have also affected both the crops and the local residents. The other effects like company refuse have also affected the agricultural land and soil. This is evident since the majority of the local residents are farmers. A respondent who is a farmer through interviews stated that the Company had left them in shamble. The negative effects of the company outweighed its benefits. He further stated that there are operations in the company that had rendered then redundant. This was not restricted to the farmer but to that depends of agricultural produce to mean the whole community. As at then, majority had become thieves since they lacked the act of survival. They had less agricultural land and the company’s existence in the area had also contributed to the increased price of land. The assertions are confirmed by another respondent (farmer) who stated that they were not producing as before the company came to the area.
4.6.2. Hostility between the Oil Companies and host communities
The other them as mentioned by the respondent was hostility and conflicts emerging due to CSR functions Chevron Nigeria which have affected individual and communal relationships. As stated by one of the respondents, existence of Chevron Nigeria has caused a lot of problems that could not be present had the company not been set in the area. The local communities no longer trust each other. There is no trust among the communities and the community leaders no longer come out publicly since they seem to have been bribed. This has reduced the level of cooperation and community among various communities as stated by the respondent. The invention of oil which earlier seemed to be a point of job has now turned each community against the other. Individual and communal relations have broken till the leaders only take about CSR issues only where there is sabotage that affect Chevron Nigeria. The effect was stated by another respondent who said that in cases where there is oil spillage or sabotage, Chevron loses both financially and also leads to reduced company imagine. Form this point; it is clear that the local community does not enjoy healthy working condition.
4.6.3 Reduced Standards of Living
The other theme that was evident when determining the effects of Corporate Social Responsibility in local host where Chevron Nigeria operates was the reduced living standards among the community residents. The community residents working and not working in the company have different living styles. There is a large range between the living standards, and this is well illustrated in the arguments brought by a 28-year old respondent. According to the respondent, the hosting community is marginalized, and this is evident from the diverse living standards among the community residents.
4.6.4 Health Problems
Another significant point that came up from the research is the health problem brought about by the company refuse. The oil spillage and the air pollutants have had various negative effects on the local residents.
The Analysis explained the method of data analysis by first presenting the characteristics of the collected data. The chapter further presents the rationale for which the Analytical method was chosen. This chapter further groups the themes emerging from the research outcomes and the permeated themes found dominant during the research. The proceeding chapter will draw necessary conclusion emerging from the research. The proceeding chapter will also present recommendations and implications of the research to the company management.
Carroll, B. (2000). ‘Ethical Challenges for Business in the New Millennium: Corporate Social Responsibility and Models of Management Morality’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 10(1): 33-42
Davies R (2003). The Business Community: Social Responsibility and Corporate Values, In Making Globalization Good: The Moral Challenges of Global Capitalism, Dunning (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press
Godfrey P C (2005). The Relationship between Corporate Philanthropy and Shareholder Wealth: a Risk Management Perspective, Academy of Management Review, 30(4): 777-798
Idemudia, U. (2006). ‘Corporate-Community Relations in Nigeria’s Oil Industry: Challenges and Imperatives’, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental management journal, 1: 2
Post E, Preston, E. and Sachs, S. (2002). Redefining the Corporation: Stakeholder Management and Organizational Wealth, Stanford: Business Books
William D, (2006). A Thematic Analysis, With a Filmography. John Ford’s Westerns. Publisher
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