computers great impact on technology analysis

Will computers ever think? This question has had many people wondering for years. Everybody wants to know if computers can have intelligent conversations and think for themselves.
Alan Turing devised a test to let people begin to consider the fact that computers have a mind of their own. This would later be called the Turing test. The test is, “what is called the Imitation Game (IG). The game is played with a man (A), a woman (B), and an interrogator (C) whose gender is unimportant. The interrogator stays in a room apart from A and B. The objective of the interrogator is to determine which of the other two is the woman while the objective of both the man and the woman is to convince the interrogator that he/she is the woman and the other is not…What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in this game? Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman?” Basically, the man and the woman are going to ask questions and try and fool the computer. They are going to try and get the computer to think it is something or someone else so that it will get the questions wrong. If the computer gets it right then they have to wonder if computers can think. If the computer could replace the person in the conversation and give the right answers then maybe computers can think for themselves.

There are only a few people that believe computers think or will ever be able to think. Turing says, “The claim that a machine cannot be the subject of its own thought can of course only be answered if it can be shown that the machine has some thought with some subject matter. Nevertheless, ‘the subject matter of a machine’s operations’ does seem to mean something, at least to the people who deal with it. If, for instance, the machine was trying to find a solution of the equation x^2 – 40x – 11 = 0 one would be tempted to describe this equation as part of the machine’s subject matter at that moment. In this sort of sense a machine undoubtedly can be its own subject matter” (Turing, p.20). Certain people would say that computers can think in certain subject matters, but that is because people have programmed the computer and put answers into the computer. Turing is trying to explain that the computers subject matter may be geared towards solutions and equations instead of the subject matter of people. Computers may be able to think and we just might not be able to understand them. On the other hand, computers just might not be able to think.

Most people do not believe that computers have their own thought process. Turing shows, out of a memoir by Lady Lovelace, that, “The Analytical Engine has no pretensions to originate anything. It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. This statement is quoted by Hartree who adds : ‘This does not imply that it may not be possible to construct electronic equipment which will ‘think for itself,’ or in which, in biological terms, one could set up a conditioned reflex, which would serve as a basis for ‘learning’’”(Turing, p.21). A computer can only do what a human tells it to do. Whatever answers humans put into the computers are the answers that humans are going to get when they try and question the machine to see if it can think. Turing shows that there are limitations to machines by “Godel’s theorem…shows that in any sufficiently powerful logical system statements can be formulated which can neither be proved nor disproved within the system, unless possibly the system itself is inconsistent… If it is rigged up to give answers to questions as in the imitation game, there will be some questions to which it will either give a wrong answer, or fail to give an answer”(Turing, pgs. 15-16). Turing is explaining that humans have to give answers to the computer for the computer to output answers to someone else, therefore the computers are not thinking for themselves.

My personal opinion is that computers cannot think. Computers do not have feelings or emotions so that they cannot give a correct response to some questions that deal with humans. For instance, if you were to tell somebody your parents just died they would say “I am so sorry for you,” and show feelings of sympathy. Whereas, a computer would not know what you are talking about and probably give a generic statement that is was taught by a human. I do not think we can teach the computer enough to have a mind of its own and even if we do it means that we gave it that mind and the mind of the computer is just information that humans put into it. I do not argue that computers are smart. If you ask a computer an informational question than the computer will get it right every time, but that still does not mean that computers can think. The table to the left shows a survey taken asking when people thought that computers would be able to think. Most people do not think that computers will not be able to think till after 2020.

Bibliography:
A.M. Turing. Computing Machinery and Intelligence. 1950

The Need for a Theory of Discourse.

http://users.erols.com/msagi/delphi-ai.html

http://crl.ucsd.edu/~saygin/papers/MMTT.pdc

uters ever think? This question has had many people wondering for years. Everybody wants to know if computers can have intelligent conversations and think for themselves.
Alan Turing devised a test to let people begin to consider the fact that computers have a mind of their own. This would later be called the Turing test. The test is, “what is called the Imitation Game (IG). The game is played with a man (A), a woman (B), and an interrogator (C) whose gender is unimportant. The interrogator stays in a room apart from A and B. The objective of the interrogator is to determine which of the other two is the woman while the objective of both the man and the woman is to convince the interrogator that he/she is the woman and the other is not…What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in this game? Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman?” Basically, the man and the woman are going to ask questions and try and fool the computer. They are going to try and get the computer to think it is something or someone else so that it will get the questions wrong. If the computer gets it right then they have to wonder if computers can think. If the computer could replace the person in the conversation and give the right answers then maybe computers can think for themselves.

There are only a few people that believe computers think or will ever be able to think. Turing says, “The claim that a machine cannot be the subject of its own thought can of course only be answered if it can be shown that the machine has some thought with some subject matter. Nevertheless, ‘the subject matter of a machine’s operations’ does seem to mean something, at least to the people who deal with it. If, for instance, the machine was trying to find a solution of the equation x^2 – 40x – 11 = 0 one would be tempted to describe this equation as part of the machine’s subject matter at that moment. In this sort of sense a machine undoubtedly can be its own subject matter” (Turing, p.20). Certain people would say that computers can think in certain subject matters, but that is because people have programmed the computer and put answers into the computer. Turing is trying to explain that the computers subject matter may be geared towards solutions and equations instead of the subject matter of people. Computers may be able to think and we just might not be able to understand them. On the other hand, computers just might not be able to think.

Most people do not believe that computers have their own thought process. Turing shows, out of a memoir by Lady Lovelace, that, “The Analytical Engine has no pretensions to originate anything. It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. This statement is quoted by Hartree who adds : ‘This does not imply that it may not be possible to construct electronic equipment which will ‘think for itself,’ or in which, in biological terms, one could set up a conditioned reflex, which would serve as a basis for ‘learning’’”(Turing, p.21). A computer can only do what a human tells it to do. Whatever answers humans put into the computers are the answers that humans are going to get when they try and question the machine to see if it can think. Turing shows that there are limitations to machines by “Godel’s theorem…shows that in any sufficiently powerful logical system statements can be formulated which can neither be proved nor disproved within the system, unless possibly the system itself is inconsistent… If it is rigged up to give answers to questions as in the imitation game, there will be some questions to which it will either give a wrong answer, or fail to give an answer”(Turing, pgs. 15-16). Turing is explaining that humans have to give answers to the computer for the computer to output answers to someone else, therefore the computers are not thinking for themselves.

My personal opinion is that computers cannot think. Computers do not have feelings or emotions so that they cannot give a correct response to some questions that deal with humans. For instance, if you were to tell somebody your parents just died they would say “I am so sorry for you,” and show feelings of sympathy. Whereas, a computer would not know what you are talking about and probably give a generic statement that is was taught by a human. I do not think we can teach the computer enough to have a mind of its own and even if we do it means that we gave it that mind and the mind of the computer is just information that humans put into it. I do not argue that computers are smart. If you ask a computer an informational question than the computer will get it right every time, but that still does not mean that computers can think. The table to the left shows a survey taken asking when people thought that computers would be able to think. Most people do not think that computers will not be able to think till after 2020.

Bibliography:
A.M. Turing. Computing Machinery and Intelligence. 1950

The Need for a Theory of Discourse.

http://users.erols.com/msagi/delphi-ai.html

http://crl.ucsd.edu/~saygin/papers/MMTT.pdc


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