Circadian Rhythms are our biological clocks; these tells us when we should sleep and also when we should wake up, but not limited to the previous. Researchers also believe that the rhythms control body temperature, mental awareness, pain awareness, and also hormone production.(1) Two studies will be examined and reviewed in the following paper, to help better understand the new findings about Circadian Rhythm The first article, “Circadian Rhythms”, reviews the work of investigators from Northwestern University. The investigators produced results that will help better understand the role our biological clocks play in our daily routines. The article also informs us that; the Circadian Rhythms of animals and plants are controlled by external and internal variables.(1) Investigators, using forward genetics, cloned the Clock gene into mice. They cloned the gene to isolate it, and for the added ability to later screen the behavior of the mice. The screening is done to gain better knowledge of the Clock gene they are implementing in the mice. By manipulating the Circadian Rhythm of the mice, the investigators believe they will be able to later manipulate the Circadian Rhythm of Humans.(1)
The investigators believe that the research performed will later lead to a better understanding of the Clock gene, making it possible to change the Sleep/Wake Cycle of Humans. They also believe it will then be possible to make new and more effective applications for use in delivering drugs to patients.(1)
The research could have endless uses though; considering there is so much unknown about all the components of the Circadian Rhythm. One more possible use could be the use of this research to advance medicine development, leading to an end of all sleeping disorders.
The second article; “Researchers Uncover Sleep/Wake Gene” reviews the research performed by Michael Young, and colleagues from Rockefeller University. The research led to a finding of a gene double-time, also known as DBT. The researchers believe that DBT controls the molecular cycles of the Circadian rhythm. They found this by studying the proteins of the DBT, and came to a theory that it monitors productions of proteins that directly effect our Circadian Rhythm. (2)
The researches found that; DBT is what controls the amount of PER and TIM proteins dispersed and stored throughout a day cycle.(2) The study explains that PER and TIM proteins are known to be associated directly with the balancing of the daily “rhythm”. For example; When the human body knows it is time to rest. The DBT gene is found to be a critical part of the rhythm, and if it were to be eliminated it would end in death.(2)
Researchers of this study are also making an attempt to better understand the Circadian Rhythm. They believe this work will later help lead to many new discoveries about the Circadian Rhythm. Possibilities they foresee; include the following: helping the night workforce to act as if it were daytime, helping to improve the delivery of medicines to patients, and also helping to end sleeping disorders. (2) Another possible application for this study could include the ability to induce sleep, instead of having to use sedatives that are sometimes fatal and damaging by their nature.
The study doesn’t lack any variables yet to be considered. However the study could be continued by cloning the DBT gene into a test subject, allowing for a better understanding of the gene. There are many unknowns with the many parts of the Circadian Rhythm; therefore, one could never really know the total value of this study until the rhythm is fully understood in whole.
The two articles give us a better understanding of where this scientific research is heading in the future. Scientists are discovering new genes and other variables that directly relate human biological clocks. Most likely that will continue to happen until the rhythm is fully understood, and been experimented on in every possible application. The scientistsin these articles believe they have tested every variable, but until trial and error is fully complete this continues to be unknown to all. However; the discoveries they have made are proven to be extremely valuable to research at this current time.
The two articles also help to relate differing factors of the Circadian Rhythm. Most of the many parts of the Circadian Rhythm are directly related, leading to a very complicated system. The sunlight outside to the a single Clock gene controls the daily rhythms. Other variables would include environmental temperature and the DBT gene. The professors and authors of the studies have shown that a better understanding is eminent in the future. Throughout there studies; it is found that there is a new direction in all forms. Possibly even linking our Circadian Rhythm to the amount of memory one can have in a lifetime; or even linking it to feelings we have about someone
- Russo, Eugene “Circadian Rhythms” The Scientist 13:16, Oct. 25, 1999
- Russo, Eugene “Researchers Uncover Sleep/Wake Gene” The Scientist 12 : 13, Aug. 17, 1998
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