Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

CBT refers to a form of therapy that assists parents in dealing with their traumatic childhood and apply appropriate skills to respond to their needs while observing behavioural limits(Cohen &Mannarino,2015). During this process, children previously exposed to child abuse are evaluated, through either forensic or clinic evaluations. These evaluations include interviews with the parents and obtaining school reports about the child’s conduct. Children who qualify for TF-CBT are those who show signs of traumatic experiences and have memories of the same.

Evaluators are also conscious of observing sighs such as anxiety, depression and behavioural disorders. TF-CBT is meant to regulate the following domains of trauma as depicted by a child’s behaviour; affective, biological, behavioural, cognitive and social domain(Cohen &Mannarino,2015) Affective domain includes sighs of anger and anxiety.Biological include sighs such as headaches and poor sleep, behavioural include sighs such as withdrawal and avoidance of trauma reminders situations, cognitive include sighs such as traumatic memories and believes while social domain could be depicted by poor peer and family relationships.

Treatment occurs in three phases namely stabilization stage, trauma narration and processing stage and consolidation and integration stage. During the stabilization phase, the therapist provides both the parent and the child with psychoeducation information, relaxation skills, parenting and affect modulation skills. Trauma narration stage is where the child engages the therapist in a detailed discussion of the traumatic experiences including feelings and emotions(Cohen &Mannarino,2015). The last stage involves the process of invivo mastery and the enhancement of security through discouraging fear and avoidance response to horrific experiences. These sessions are conducted through a conjoint child-parent session.

Key dynamics associated with childhood abuse

Children who have grown in an abusive childhood environment, lack normal care from their family members. Child abuse can be described as the ill-treatment to children from parents or close family members through violence and threats, deprivation of privacy, isolation, extreme forms of punishment, enforced rules and betrayal(Herman, 2001). Several key dynamics are closely associated with childhood abuse as a result of the formation of deliquescent personalities in teenagers and trauma in adult life.

Children who received abuse during their childhood, develop attachments to those who abused them to the extent that they sacrifice their priorities and welfare. Some of the victims do not escape this deteriorating behaviour even as they become adults. They carry with themselves habits such as sleep deprivation, food starvation and excessive exposure to heat or cold and other self-mutilation behaviours(Herman, 2001). It becomes hard for the survivors to rub the abusive experiences from their mind, and they keep expecting negative experiences such as violence and rape that leadto an intense pattern of unstable relationships with other people.

One of the major effects of child abuse is the phenomenon where survivors victimize themselves and not other people. In some reported cases, victims become addicted to traumatic experiences and tend to acquire satisfaction through repeated abuse and torture. These survivors, according to psychiatrists, direct their aggression to themselves and some of them have admitted to experiencing sexual pleasure through abuse(Herman, 2001). It has been reported that some of these victims pay for physical abuse. This self-loathing behaviour can result in suicidal incidents when traumatic situations are highly amplified. These individuals develop feelings of rage, murder and revenge that consequently lands them in conflicts since they lack the skill of calmly handling difficult situations.



Cohen, J. A., &Mannarino, A. P. (2015). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for          traumatized children and families; Author manuscript; 24(3): 557–570

Herman, J. L. (2001). Trauma and Recovery: From Domestic Abuse to Political Terror. 1992.        London: Pandora.

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