Crime and criminal behavior is a rather complex phenomenon that has no single cause. Many factors have been identified as contributing to criminal conduct. Biological theories are based on the belief that a few people are born criminals and that they are physiologically different from non-criminals. The godfather of criminology,Cesare Lombroso,argued that criminality is genetic. Modern theories explaining criminal behavior take into consideration both the social and psychological elements. Understanding the causes of crime is extremely important because of its policy implications in that it would help in dealing with the offenders and preventing future cases of crime.
Several biological factors have been identified to cause or at least contribute to crime. Some of the biological factors include faulty brain development, mental health issues, XYY chromosomal syndrome, alcohol or drug abuse by the mother during pregnancy, brain plasticity, hormonal imbalance, low intelligence, genetic inheritance of abnormalities, minor physical anomalies, birth complications, and poor nutrition(Fuller, 2013). In his theory of atavism, Cesare Lombroso argued that criminals are not as evolved as non-criminals. Genetic explanations of criminal behavior have become a recurring trend in modern psychology (Walker, 2017). To establish the genetic link, researchers on the rates of crime in families found that sons whose fathers have past criminal records are more likely to engage in crime compared to those whose parents have never been arrested.
There is also some evidence to suggest that there exists a criminal personality that is biological in nature.The personality of an individual is based on how well the inherited nervous system is able to learn. A criminal personality is described as neurotic, extraverted, and showing signs of psychoticism.Neuroticism means that they show signs of emotional instability and anxiety. Extroverts tend to be very sociable, outgoing, and thrill seekers. Signs of psychoticism include excessive coldness, aggressiveness, and hostility. Recent studies have also shown that individuals with higher testosterone levels are prone to criminality because they are generally more muscular.
The effect of the social environment cannot be ignored in explaining the causes of crime. A shared environment is a major contributor to criminal behavior. Crime is a result of the experiences within peer groups, neighborhoods, and households. There are higher chances of children engaging in criminal behavior if the immediate relatives, such as uncles, aunts, cousins, and grandparents, are criminals. Studies have also shown that people from low-income neighborhoods have a higher likelihood of becoming criminals. Neighborhood dynamics, such as poor housing, poor health, and transient populations contribute to higher delinquency rates.
Both biological and environmental theories partially explain the causes of criminal behavior. However, crime remains a function of free will. Based on the neoclassical approach, criminal behavior is individually determined and situational. The neoclassical school of thought is different from the positivist approach, which uses scientific techniques to explain criminal behavior. The positivist approach includes biological, sociological, psychological, and critical sociological theories(Fuller, 2013). The policy implication of biological theories is putting measures in place to prevent at-risk individuals from engaging in crime. For instance, extra lessons in social interaction and emotion management would help a child who has a gene for criminality.
However, it is important to exercise caution while advocating for biological theories because they can raise ethical queries where an individual is pre-emptively prosecuted because of having/inheriting a gene for criminal behavior. Biological explanations of crime may also lead to an increase in insanity pleas where a defendant argues that they are not morally responsible for their actions. Current law regarding insanity pleas is the burden of proving unsoundness of mind by the accused. Courts usually engage the services of a psychiatrist who does amental status examination on the accused.
Attachment theory is a component of social control theory that focuses on how social and familial bonds influence criminal behavior. Based on this theory, young people who hold stronger attachments to their parents are less likely to engage in violent behavior. Self-control theory emphasizes the importance of self-control and free will. Based on this theory, low self-control is a major cause of criminal behavior. The hypothesis calls on parents to instill self-control in their children from a tender age (Walker, 2017). In view of the attachment and self-control theories, the early developmental process of a child is very crucial as it sets the stage for their adult life.
According to the social disorganization theory proposed by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay, crime is a function of neighborhood dynamics as opposed to the individual. Based on this supposition, improving neighborhood dynamics would help in addressing crime. Robert Merton’s strain hypothesis argues that there is a strain between people’s social goals and the means of achieving those goals. This strain leads some individuals to engage in criminal activity to achieve material success. The major point of learning theory is that deviant behavior is learned(Fuller, 2013). This theory proves that criminality is a function of the environment and an individual response to the environment. Non-delinquent individuals learn criminal behaviors from other people in their environment who have criminal values and attitudes.
Fuller, J. R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency: Mainstream and crosscurrents. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Walker, J. (2017). Social, ecological and environmental theories of crime. Routledge.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!