Worldwide, the aviation industry is outstanding with an increased potential for growth. International Air Transport estimates an increase in the number of air travel passengers to 7.3 billion by 2034. The increasing demand causes airlines such as Ryanair to upgrade their flights. The increase is likely to increase annually. There was an addition in the number of routes in 2018 -2019 in the aviation industry. The higher the increase in transport uses the higher the carbon emission experienced. The paper will focus on Ryanair an Ireland based airline which is located in the United Kingdom. In 2019, Ryanair was termed as the leading and biggest airline in Europe. Ryanair takes the top position in the aviation industry in the UK because of its low costs. In 2019, Ryanair saw an increase in traffic of 9 percent to 152.4million. The increase can be attributed to the integration of Ryanair with subsidiary lines such as Malta Air and Lauda Motion. Noteworthy is that Ryanair managed to increase its traffic without the Boeing Max 200s which was set to arrive in mid-2019. Despite the increase in traffic and revenue increase to €7.6 billion, the firm is termed one of the leading carbon emitters according to the Transport and environment report 2019////. Ryanair a low-cost carrier saw an increase in emission to 5.9 percent in 2019. The firm is however taking up green technologies.
Carbon Gas Emission in Ryanair’s business, Management, and Leadership
Ryanair is Europe’s favorite Airline which estimated to carry more than 150 million passengers in 2020. The client base is mainly in Europe. Ryanair has a competitive advantage over other airlines because of its low-cost fares. Ryanair has made movement easy and convenient for people in Europe as the travel rates are affordable. The affordability makes tourism, study, business, visiting friends, and community easy. Ryanair has focused on integrating the European community unlike any other business. Apart from the clients, Ryanair still offers competitive remunerations, high-quality jobs, increased promotion opportunities, high levels of training, and many other benefits to more than 16,000 aviation experts.
Ryanair works in 37 nations, from 86 bases, and serves more than 200 air terminals. Ryanair group incorporates residents from each EU Member State. Ryanair bolsters more than 220,000 air terminal employments and creates gigantic monetary action and occupations in the EU, particularly its districts. A considerable lot of which endures low degrees of financial turn of events and high youth joblessness.
According to corporateryanair.com (2020), Ryanair is termed as Europe’s Cleanest Greenest Airline. Over the most recent five years, Ryanair has changed more than some other aircraft, as it revealed a progression of computerized and client experience enhancements.
The Ryanair Paperless system focuses on providing a sustainable and eco-friendly community. The project aims at embracing the unfamiliar as it ensures the achievements of its goals and objectives. Through affirmative action, the team leads as an example to motivate the community both locally, nationally, and internationally. Through scientific research as stated in the Quantum theory, global warming was realized, and the Zero Net Emission was initiated in 2015 to ensure that global warming or the increase in temperature could be reduced significantly. Useful results obtained through quantum physics has helped in laying the framework for the Zero Net Carbon Emissions project.
National- states and the environment are some of the entities that most social scientists take for granted yet they affect our lives. For Ryanair to have factual answers and not approximations based on assumptions varied entities such as the environment and the people had to be put in place to obtain correct data on global warming. Through quantum physics, Ryanair had a full account of the reality and the future of global warming as all the possibilities within the system were described. Once Ryanair had complete data on the ideal outcome they ended up stating various strategies that would be put in place for example use of green power supply and leading the edge to curb global warming.
In the Ryanair Paperless system project, the team also applied the Vision communication and pursuit theory (Moore, 2014).
According to the Vision communication and pursuit theory, the vision is shaped by the hierarchical leader, and the sharing of leadership processes mainly involves followers. Plastic-free Carbon Emissions have efficiently progressed through shared leadership. Ryanair has always ensured it empowers its members because as long as they all have a common focus (purposes and values) success is assured (Shah et al., 2016).
Through shared leadership, the complex issue of global warming in Ryanair has received fast and great responses. Through shared leadership and excellent communication, teams have been very useful as they visualize excellence. The goals are slowly but efficiently being achieved because the followers and the leaders have aligned goals. Through the process of reducing global warming, members have always listened and maintained respect for one another which has encouraged communication and trust.
As in the visual communication and pursuit theory, visionary and charismatic leadership is essential as it enhances effectiveness. In Ryanair, it is clear that the leaders have transformational qualities and this is evident in their success and effectiveness. Through excellent leadership, Ryanair has been named the cleanest Airline in Europe in 2019. Various examples prove that Ryanair’s leadership is effective. One, through Ryanair’s creative technologies and improved environmental performances, Ryanair has become a leading example that most of the cities emulate. Two, they have shared leadership or interactions with various partners, organizations, local governments, Asian and Chinese governments, and the residents of Europe (Moore, 2014). Three, they share valuable information regarding emissions with building & business owners, city residents, visitors, and workers thus, creating awareness.
Four, the organization has developed various innovative programs, for example, online booking programs that offer data, solutions, and address barriers that aim at reducing emissions. For the project to remain effective and improve over time innovations are mandatory therefore; through the creative technologies success of the firm has been assured. Five, the Ryanair is open to share and gain knowledge, approaches, and challenges that will help attain the Ryanair’s vision. Visionary leaders exercise learning not only for themselves but the entire team as large. Through meeting and conferences, Ryanair has always instilled eagerness to learn among its members, therefore, leading to the creation of highly knowledgeable and highly skilled members of the team.
As the firm’s leadership initiates respect, teamwork, and team spirit they help in removing equivocality brought about by double interaction. Ryanair’s leadership has been effective as it has removed equivocality among members. Equivocality is very dangerous as it can lead to the collapse of a project. Through three organizing processes (enactment, selection, and retention), Ryanair has managed to defeat equivocality. The leaders ensure that consultations are facilitated before the final decision is set-up. During the development of the various strategies about global emissions, more than 30 firms have helped in identifying the focus areas, issues, and challenges. Besides differences, external groups acted as points of reference while some provided guidance and input. Besides, community consultations are done just like in 2013. Through engagement, feedbacks regarding any development are acquired. Through the process, trust is built, and competence is maintained. Through continuous support, competence is maintained, and change becomes gradual. As one of the principles states “competence enhancing change is gradual and supported, however, status or competence that destroys change leads to discontinuous change that is resisted(Shah et al., 2016).” Over time, Ryanair has shown competence which in turn has led to support from various organizations, local and international departments.
Creating and sustaining a firm’s vision is not as easy as it calls for creativity and discipline. Creativity is evident in Ryanair through the different innovative programs, for example, a paperless system. Besides, the discipline has been maintained as members show respect to one another and the different ideas one has to offer. Through the great teamwork and team spirit for inter and intragroup members, shows that a culture of discipline has been maintained. The leaders have acted as significant prototypes due to their efficient communication, charisma, teamwork, innovation, organized learning, and great relationships. Through consultations, Ryanair has managed to avoid wrong decisions. Through communication and pursuit of the vision, Ryanair’s leadership has been very effective.
The life-threatening risks faced in cities such as flooding, drought are caused by carbon emissions. According to Béné, Mehta, McGranahan, Cannon, Gupte & Tanner (2018), Climate change is referred to as the change in the climate state that persists for long periods such as decades or even longer. Climate change is detected through a change in the mean or variability of its properties. Climate change does not only lead to the rise in temperature or cause global warming; it also causes changes in regional climate characteristics such as wind, rainfall, and humidity. Climate change causes extreme weather events that have an impact on social, biophysical, and economic factors.
Climate change has direct and indirect effects. Some of the direct effects of climate change include extreme weather events such as warm spells, heavy rainfall, increased heat events, intensified storm surges, and a rise in the sea level (Béné, Mehta, McGranahan, Cannon, Gupte & Tanner, 2018). According to the UN habitat statistics, over 200 million people live along the coastline and they are 5 meters away from the sea level worldwide. Climate change provokes the sea level to rise to threatening levels thus might also result in land erosion in the coastlines and the riverbanks. Due to increased sea level and land erosion, people are likely to displaced, properties and physical assets will be destroyed and there will be the loss of ecosystem services (Allen, 2015). Besides, increased weather conditions lead to health burdens due to water-borne diseases or health-related problems due to heat.
Some of the indirect impacts of climate change that result from an interaction with direct impacts include political stressors for example; poverty and inequality, inadequate institutions and infrastructure, settlement patterns, rapid population growth, and political instability (Béné, Mehta, McGranahan, Cannon, Gupte,
& Tanner, 2018). Other indirect impacts include socio-economic or other demographics. Climate change also has effects that are resource linked. The resource linked effects are experienced after a disaster has occurred and they include water shortage, food insecurity, and increased food and fuel prices. The outcomes of climate change have negative effects on Human Development aspirations.
According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the United Nations states some of the climate change impacts that are likely to affect countries or urban cities in the 21st Century. There is likely to be a decrease in the snow cover thus affecting the glacial or snow-fed systems. Over 50 percent of the summer flows in many countries come from snow, therefore, a decrease in snow cover reduces the freshwater supply (Allen, 2015). Countries such as India are likely to experience erratic monsoons that have negative effects on the power supply, water supply, rivers, and agriculture depending on rain.
Climate change will also affect food production because the rise in temperature by only one degree brings forth a negative impact. An example, an increase in 1 degree of temperature is likely to decrease wheat production by 4 to 5 tonnes (De Jong, Joss, Schraven, Zhan, & Weijnen, 2015). Climate change will cause a rise in sea level thus displacing the 200 million individuals who settle along the coastlines of the world. Besides, mangrove ecosystems and freshwater sources are also threatened by climate change. Due to climate change, floods are likely to intensify and increase in frequency. People in the coastal, arid, and semi-arid zones are highly vulnerable. Besides, the forest types are likely to shift thus impacts biodiversity, human livelihoods, and climate dynamics across the region.
Considering carbon emissions bring about Climate change, Ryanair should focus on working in connection with the local government. The connection between climate change and urbanization is close and complex and it can be elaborated through two feedback loops. To begin with, cities in urbanizing countries such as the UK, China, and India contribute highly to the emission of high levels of Greenhouse gas emission (De Jong, Joss, Schraven, Zhan & Weijnen, 2015). Besides, city residents are highly vulnerable to the direct and indirect effects of climate change. Cities consist of both the rich and poor and vulnerable communities, the vulnerable and the poor will face worse stresses and shock that are caused by climate change this is due to inadequate access to services and infrastructure. One of the factors that increase risks and vulnerability to the economy, people, and properties is urbanization.
In 2007, the number of people living in villages equaled the number of people living in urban centers, due to the great urban upsurge the number of people living in cities has increased (Pizzo, 2015). Cities have high concentrations of people, infrastructure, capital stock, and properties, therefore, hazardous effects of climate change can be catastrophic. The catastrophic effects of climate change are evident from floods that occurred in Mumbai in 2005, in Pakistan in 2010 and Thailand in 2011.
In addition to climate change and urbanization connection, some of the cities are located in dangerous places like steep slopes or low lands next to riverbanks or the coastline (Allen, 2015). Some of the buildings developed in such areas might not utilize structures that adhere to building codes. The urban centers become hot spots when climate change increasingly exposes humans to natural disasters. Some of the residents that are most vulnerable in such settlements include women, the elderly, children, and those with health complications due to factors such as poor body strength, few resources, or reduced mobility.
Local and city government must ensure there is a reduction in damage and recovery period in case of any potential disaster; this can only be done through resilient planning in cities. Cities should ensure they build resilience (a system that absorbs reorganization and disturbance). Cities should have resilient- building qualities such as flexibility, adaptivity, and diversity to overcome both expected and unexpected outcomes of climate change. There are various ways of building resilience in the city. One, the city should focus on increasing the knowledge of people in the community. Two, it is obvious there are warning capacities in place in such a case the city should focus on improving them. Three, cities should recognize different projects and their capacities to decrease or increase vulnerability (Coaffee & Lee, 2016). For resilient cities, highly adaptive infrastructure, economies and institutions are mandatory to mitigate risks and also to effectively recover from climate disaster that could not be avoided or seen.
In a community, resilience is one effective and dynamic quality, however, it can be built if vulnerabilities are well known and interventions to reduce the risks are designed (Coaffee & Lee, 2016). An example is the case of poor environmental management which leads to livelihood vulnerability. The city can focus on managing natural resources sustainably for example agricultural land, fisheries, or forestry to increase resilience. Institutions of sustainable management of resources will build resilience in the community. Sustainable management requires effective planning practices and there is a lot of change. Planning aims at building city resistance by increasing food security, flood protection, adequate sanitation, and improving water quality.
Plans for adaptation and disaster reduction should not be formulated in isolation, instead, they should be incorporated with development planning processes. Development strategies should incorporate plans of increasing community resilience through diversification of income, economic development, cropping strategies to increase flood and drought resistance, hazard resilient infrastructure, and development of warning systems (Coaffee & Lee, 2016). To achieve human development objectives, programs for water, health, sanitation, and social protection are of great potential. Human development objectives include efficiency, sustainability, equity, and empowerment. National and Sub-national development strategies should ensure they create projects that reduce risks, enhance resilience and development.
Resilient planning framework
Resilient planning framework in cities can be divided into three sub-sections (national, state, or city level) which all have critical components. The national-level resilience planning framework consists of a development plan that guides all sectors into promoting development that exacerbates risks. The national framework also consists of health, housing, water, sanitation, energy, skill development, and poverty eradication policies aimed at reducing long-term vulnerability and increasing resilience over a short period of development (Coaffee & Lee, 2016). Standards and regulations are also part of the resilient national development program aimed to ensure the safe use of land and optimum consumption of resources. The national framework also has Climate change policies which aim at the utilization of disaster risk reduction tools and techniques for designing and adapting adaptation interventions.
The resilience planning framework at the state level has various critical components discussed below. A comprehensive plan for state-level development and it incorporates disaster and climate risk sectors. The framework also entails a development plan that involves a wide stakeholder engagement. State plans for industrial and economic development, water supply, sanitation, employment generation, and electricity (Coaffee & Lee, 2016). State plans focus on identifying vulnerable groups and addressing their adaptation requirement as a way of reducing disaster risk.
In the city level, the resilient planning framework involves actual programs taking place to ensure risk reduction. Some of the programs include infrastructure projects, programs for improving energy access and mobility, programs for water supply, sanitation, waste management, health and housing and plans to follow the land-use planning regulations. The infrastructure projects provide opportunities for human development which includes reduction of poverty, gender equity, and diversification. Energy and mobility programs ensure development in urban and rural areas which will help in reducing the migration of people to urban centers.
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