Today, the government has implemented the law which requires all the children including those with disabilities to attend school. Parents whose kids have been diagnosed as being disabled could request that these kids be given a kind of formal plan made for these kids that would reduce the impact of the learning abilities. For a student to qualify for this plan, there are requirements that the student is expected to meet, such as having a report from the doctor to confirm this. There are also plans on Behavior intervention for those kids whose behavior is affected by the disability.
Formal plans like accommodation, education, health are offered. The plan is made complete by school representatives together with the students and parents who are more knowledgeable about the school systems. The aim of these intervention plans is to punish undesired behavior as well as reward the desired one.
People with psychosis for example have been incorporated in the mindfulness interventions where they look at certain symptoms. A well tailored mindfulness training may become beneficial in that it would aim at understanding the symptoms and the experiences of schizophrenia. Mindfulness has been a traditional practice associated with the Buddhism (Hanh, 1992). Researchers have been arguing about the components of mindfulness, their relationship and also the operational definitions (Baer, 2003). Mindful awareness can be said to be awareness conscious and purposeful focused (Kabat-Zinn, 1990). The main aim of mindfulness is to have a different relationship in a person’s experience by relating to a person’s current moment in a different manner, so that nobody judges or analyzes the reason for its presence or its origin (Abba et al, 2008).
The aim of this study is to look at how behavior intervention can be used to discipline the students who have disabilities that control or influence their behavior, benefactors of the system and the impact of the plan to students who are deviant as a result of disabilities. The paper will also look at the use of mindfulness intervention.
Behaviour and Intervention
The Behavior Intervention Plan picks the observations that are made from behavioral assessment, converts them into a permanent plan to be implemented in managing the behavior of the student. It may involve methods of changing environment and prevent the behavior from starting, give positive reinforcement which leads to good behavior, give the necessary support required by the kid so that he or she does not change behavior as a result of frustrations and fatigue and also employing planned ignorance so as to avoid any aspect of reinforcing any bad behavior (Mauro, 2013). If the behavior plan is accepted by the staff members in the school, they should then implement it. However, now that there can be many ideas, it may take more advocacies and vigilance as well as the battling by the parents to ensure that all those who take the interventions in account does it in an informed manner.
Analysis of Target behavior
The first step is to identify the target behavior that has impacts on the progress of the child. This can be done by a teacher who will describe it in a way that will make the work of the rest of the team be easy. This paper will look at the behavior of people with schizophrenia who do not have any contact with the reality. These people see or even hear things that do not exist, speak in confusing ways and always believe that others are following them and want to harm them.
These people also suffer from a condition called anhedonia, where they have less interest or pleasure (Andreasen, et al, Johnson et al, 2009). Mindfulness could be used to address this because when it brings awareness one is able to notice details and have a sense of becoming present in that moment. Practicing mindfulness could enhance richness as well as clarity of moment and add frequency of positive states of emotion (Brown and Ryan, 2003).
There are many people interested in the psychosocial interventions such as Psychotherapy that help in the treating the illness. This involves use of cognitive behavioral therapy used to treat anxiety disorders and mood to the kids with serious mental disorders (Morrison, 2009).
People with schizophrenia have been offered a mindfulness intervention whereby they are trained for about eight weeks where they undergo meditation training, group discussions and also sharing their experiences with others. This aims at healing the patient and brings relief.
In this paper I intend to use three methods in conducting the research. These are population and sampling, measurement and the research design. I will also look at the secondary I formation such as articles and journals in the internet to add more information on the same. These will all aim at the behavior intervention plan.
A study on mindfulness intervention was done to people who suffered from schizophrenia. A curriculum obtained from MBCT and MBSR was used to five outpatients. They were all men and those who were found to be prone to drug abuse were left out. They attended two mindfulness classes per week in eight weeks, each taking one hour. The treatment involved meditation practice for about twenty minutes then group discussions where they could speak out their experiences. The classes had flexible agendas and also didactic information, then the sessions could end with people reflecting on a quotation which is mindfulness related (Morris, 2011). The participants were interviewed on their experience with the group. Their feedback was used as the qualitative data to make the conclusions.
Another study was done by Brown et al. (2010) to investigate effects of training on mindfulness meditation for anxiety in schizophrenia. Individuals who participated were fifteen. These people went through a series of training and were able to recover from psychological symptoms. They were also given assignments to try them on their own at home and this made them be actively involved in the training. This helped them quite a lot in that they were able to learn to be mindful even to others like while eating and during other activities.
Other researchers tried other techniques such as the CBT approach to the persons suffering from schizophrenia and tried to show how the method has been focusing on changing beliefs about the symptoms and observed that the approach was actually evolving. This is because it tends to identify automatic thoughts as well as the maladaptive beliefs, questions and then replaces them with others which are more adaptive. The participants are taught ways to use in accomplishing this on day to day life. Methods of coping are also taught to enable the participants have distress tolerance to be able to survive in difficult times without exacerbating the experiences and symptoms. Also, they are enlightened on how to reduce the negative symptoms.
The participants reported that they had benefited a lot from the participation. They said that the participation brought about “grounding” and also “healing.” The meditation on the self-compassion was very much endorsed by the students and said that it was very helpful. It was noted that the self compassion could have mitigated their self criticism which led to their self acceptance hence increased their ability to exercise awareness which is not judging (Morris, 2011).
The intervention plan specifies the rewards for the kids who succeed in disciplining their behavior and also the punishment for those who fail to comply with the approved behavior in class as laid down by the administration. The plan aims that the children will be responsible for the behavior which is as a result of their disabilities irrespective of their ability to be able to control it. The teachers and other staff members plus the parents should come to a consensus on which method to use so as to help the children. Once they do that, they should then start immediately and be committed to yield good results The main aim of mindfulness is to have a different relationship in experience a person has by relating someone’s current moment in a different manner, so that nobody judges or analyzes the reason for its presence or its origin
Schizophrenia is a very serious disorder of mind which makes an individual to have maladaptive functioning as well as suffer a lot (Geanallos, 2005). Aspects like delusions and hallucinations are very persistent and refractory (Breier, et al, 1991). These may not respond very well to the current treatments and psychotropic medications. In that regard, potential treatment which would mitigate symptoms experience which is associated with the problem and be functioning would be very much desirable. Researchers have tried to apply mindfulness interventions to people with schizophrenia. The method has been seen to bear fruits as those who have undergone the process feel that they have been relieved from psychological symptoms and healing.
Andreasen, N.C. & Carpenter, W.T. (1993). Diagnosis and classification of
schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 199–214
Ann K Morrison (2009). Cognitive Behavior Therapy For People with Schizophrenia. National Library of Medicine, USA. Retrieved on 22nd Feb 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2811142/
Brown, L.F., Davis, L.W., LaRocco, V.A., & Strasburger, A. (2010). Participant
perspectives on mindfulness meditation training for anxiety in schizophrenia.
American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 13, 224-242.
Breier, A., Schreiber, J.L., Dyer, J, & Pickar, D. (1991). National Institute of Mental
Health longitudinal study of chronic schizophrenia: Prognosis and predictors of
outcome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 239-246.
Dana Gray (2006) Behavior Intervention Plan. Society for the Philosophy and History of Education. Oklahoma State University. Willard Hall. Retrieved on 22nd Feb 2013 from http://www.lamergray.com/gray/service/research/SOPHE%20Proposal%20- %20Behavior%20Intervention%20Plan.pdf
Davis, L.W., Strasburger, A.M., & Brown, L.F. (2008). Mindfulness: An intervention for anxiety in schizophrenia. Journal of psychosocial nursing, 45(11), 23-29 Retrieved on 22nd Feb 2013 from http://etd.lib.umt.edu/theses/available/etd-06102011- 103752/unrestricted/Miller_umt_0136D_10128.pdf
Geanallos, R. (2005). Adversity as opportunity: Living with schizophrenia and developing a resilient self. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 14,15.
Johnson, D.P., Penn, D.L., Fredrickson, B.L., & Meyer, P.S. (2009). Loving-kindness meditation to enhance recovery from negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 499-509.
Terri Mauro, (2013). Behavior Intervention Plan: Children with Special needs. About.com. Retrieved on 22nd Feb 2013 from http://specialchildren.about.com/od/behavioranddiscipline/g/BIP.htm
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