Banking institution and financial services company

JP Morgan banking institution and financial services company has its roots in American as far back as the Revolutionary War and since that time has experienced a number of ebbs and flows to its profitability, viability and reputation. The firm has experienced the envy of Wall Street and, at other times, has faced the derision of other firms as they were passed by in size, power and influence. Many of the firms passing them by are now distant memories while JP Morgan is once again at the top of the financial heap. What is really remarkable is that J.P. Morgan was purchased for $30 billion a short nine years ago. The purchase was facilitated by Chase Bank eleven years after Morgan was at the apex of the financial world. “In 1990, J.P. Morgan had the biggest market value of any U.S. bank or brokerage” (Chasing, 2000, pg. 48). Yet, from 1990 to the year 2000, J.P. underwent drastic changes that ultimately led to its takeover by Chase. The ironic aspect of the Morgan scenario is that the company had fought so long to overthrow the restrictive Glass-Steagall act, then, when the act was finally wiped away by President Clinton in 1999, what should have been a moment of victory was quickly replaced by merger fever with J.P. Morgan as one of its first casualties.

An 1997 article in Euromoney magazine espoused the virtues of the company by calling the firm “stable, conservative, intellectual almost to the point of introversion, always there for the client, the commercial bank had one of the strongest cultures on Wall Street” (Battle, 1997, pg. 26).

This was the J.P. Morgan company that had its foundations in the early American financial world, the company that was as well-known for its conservative nature as it was for its founder; John Pierpont Morgan. The question that this paper will address is how the history of one of America’s largest financial firms has influenced today’s financial industry as well as whether, and how, the company will continue to influence the markets of tomorrow.

John Pierpont Morgan along with his good friend and banker Anthony Drexel, founded J.P. Morgan and Company in 1871. “The new merchant banking partnership served initially as an agent for Europeans investing in the United States, ultimately raising much of the capital to support American industrial expansion” (The History, 2008, pg. 7). The company soon became one of America’s strongest financial firms, both in dollars, and the influence it wielded in the financial industry. John, known for his integrity and judgment, became one of the most influential characters of the time. “They say that during the stock market panic of 1907, one man single-handedly prevented an outright collapselegendary financier J.P. Morgan gathered his lieutenants and declared: ‘This is the place to stop the trouble.’ Sure enough, the trouble stopped” (Nocera, 1998, pg. 29).

Initially the company funded much of the growth of the railroad industry in America. Pierpont was able to consolidate much of the industry, by cutting costs and restructuring their debt.

The railroads were an integral part of American transportation of goods, services and people, and by consolidating many of the railroad companies, J.P. Morgan & Company became known for a process called “Morganization.” Once the railroad industry was standing on firm ground, Pierpont and J.P. Morgan & Company turned their attention elsewhere. The profits earned by consolidating the railroads were reinvested in many companies that would become household words. Companies such as General Electric, and U.S. Steel both benefited from capital provided by J.P. Morgan.

The company was influential and so was the company’s owner and founder. In 1897, John was instrumental in forming a gold syndicate that saved the gold standard for the U.S. government. A short ten years later, J.P. was again instrumental in helping out the government.

Ron Chernow, in his book An American Banking Dynasty and the House of Morgan: The Rise of Modern Finance, wrote that the Morgan financial firm was an early influence on America’s way of life, and continues to influence American financial markets even today.

“They say that during the stock market panic of 1907, one man single-handedly prevented an outright collapselegendary financier J.P. Morgan gathered his lieutenants and declared: ‘This is the place to stop the trouble.’ Sure enough, the trouble stopped” (Nocera, 1998, pg. 29).

Many of the directors of the various banks and financial entities amassed personal fortunes that would be astronomically large even in today’s terms.

JP was just one of those that established a legacy that would outlive him by decades. The legacy he left behind included his son JP Morgan (Jack). When Pierpont passed on shortly after the Pujo hearings in 1913, his son Jack took control, and though he would not garner the same reputation as his father did, he was still a force to be reckoned with on Wall Street.

Many of the happenings that took place throughout the time heading up to the Crash of 1929 and the following Great Depression were greatly influenced by Jack, his associates and the banks they owned or controlled.

“The rigid supply of money, jealously guarded by the eastern banks, had severe consequences.” (Geisst 1997-page 187).

Much of the growth of the banks and financial institutions which yielded unheard of wealth and profitability for many bankers, may also have contributed to the crash and some experts believe that Wall Street was the main cause of both the crash itself and the ensuing depression.

Smith Brookhart, a senator from Massachusetts said, “borrowed money will cost the farmer more in 1929 than it did in 1928, due to the high money rates enforced by the phenomenal industrial expansion and stock market turnover in the last five years.” (Lawrence 1929-page 37). His observation was correct, and many experts now unequivocally state that ‘Wall Street and the banking community were directly responsible for the economic conditions as October 1929 approached’. Jack Morgan was one of those individuals benefiting from those economic conditions.

After the crash, Morgan would be called before the Senate just as his father was before him during the Pujo hearings. And similar to his father, he came through the hearings relatively unscathed, even though much of what he had to say to the committee (again like his father) allowed a light to shine, albeit briefly, on the inner workings of the banking and financial industry.

That many times, he directly benefited at the expense of those who were suffering the most, is undeniable, that he could have personally done anything to change that suffering is debatable.

The changes that took place to bring Wall Street and the financial industry into the twentieth century were multiple and effective. No longer would those individuals such as JP Morgan and his cronies be able to cash in on opportunities denied the public, no longer would they be able to flagrantly trade in their own company’s stocks, or in stocks where they had a controlling interest, no longer would they have the capabilities to sell ‘short’ a stock in order to buy it back at a much lower price. All these issues, and more, were addressed by Congress during and immediately following the aftereffects of the Crash and the ensuing Depression.

It was not an easy process for Wall Street to experience, and in many cases the firms and individuals affected, only accepted the changes after being dragged kicking and screaming the entire way to drink from the watering trough of regulations and high standards for the industry. Ferdinand Pecora took over the Senate hearings in January 1933 and immediately made an impact.

Now known as the Pecora hearings, he wished to investigate a number of practices by the ‘street’ and the bankers that had so much influence. Chief among his desires was his wish to investigate short selling and the practice of ‘planting stories’.

“Wall Street was almost wholeheartedly against the Senate investigation..they (senators) all shared a common desire to see short selling investigated and wanted to see the list of those who were selling short and who they represented.” (Geisst 1997 pp 209-210).

Although most traders felt that short selling was okay, and in most cases was a viable method to making money, investment bankers took a somewhat dimmer view of that belief. According to Geisst, traders believed ‘short selling meant that sellers would ultimately have to buy back any of the stocks they sold, providing buying power for the exchange.’

One of the first individuals to testify was Mayor La Guardia who presented a suitcase full of proof that a publicist by the name of Newton Plummer had paid out almost $300,000 over a ten-year time frame to journalists who would then print stories that, while not quite accurate, the stories definitely favored the pools and companies written about.

Planting stories was supposed to have been done away with nearly ten years earlier, so to find out it was still vigorously alive, gave added impetus to the hearings.

The hearings gave brokers and traders a bad name but these were somewhat small time fish, it was when stories of greed and manipulation surfaced regarding individual bankers that they became ‘the most hated professional group in the country’.

It was from Pecora’s hearings that many of the standards and regulations affecting the financial industry emerged, and continue to govern the way the ‘street’ does business today. It was also the time of the Glass-Steagall Act.

The roaring twenties gave way to the Depression Era of the 1930’s and still J.P. Morgan bore the standard for financial firms on Wall Street. The firm was the first one to be investigated in an attempt to discover what caused the 1929 stock market crash. In 1933, J.P.’s son ‘Jack’ was called before a Congressional hearing to testify on the bank’s behalf. He told the Senators there “If I may be permitted to speakI should state that at all times the idea of doing only first-class business, and that in a first-class way, has been before our minds” (The History, pg. 13).

With the enactment of the Glass-Steagall act of 1933, Morgan and other major banks were forced to divest themselves of investments and investing activities. The act would ultimately mean that J.P Morgan & Company would become two distinct firms. Morgan Stanley, and J.P. Morgan. J.P. Morgan would concentrate on banking and capitalization activities, while Morgan Stanley would concentrate on investment activities including stock and bond purchases and sales.

Influence, or the perception of influence by Morgan was still quite strong. Evidence of this influence was when one individual familiar with the financial industry proposed a remedy to the world’s financial woes by creating Morgan dollars backed by gold deposits. The ‘amateur economist’ proposed that “national currencies, pegged to the Morgan dollars, would become the international medium of exchange, with J.P. Morgan & Company acting as central clearinghouse” (Horn, 2003, pg. 520).

The ensuing decade (following the crash) was a difficult struggle of attempting to overcome the affects of the crash and the Depression. It was not until late in the decade that the market, and the country’s finances finally began to recover, and much of that was due to the entry by the United States into the war early in the 40’s. Much of the struggle was due to Roosevelt’s “New Deal’ and his policies of government intervention in the industries and companies of America.

“The revolutionary changes brought about by new regulations did not allay fears that American business still had a monopoly hold over major sectors of the economy.” (Geisst 1997-page 244). It would take nearly twenty years before Wall Street had regained its equilibrium, was able to hold its head high with self-respect once again. America’s public attitude of disgust for the actions of many of these investment bankers would take nearly as long to recede.

It was not until long after the end of the war, as America’s economy boomed, with mass production leading the way, that the individual investor returned to Wall Street.

More small investors made money in the housing market during the forties than they did in stocks. It was also in the late forties that the Justice Department circled like vultures over the investment banking community once again.

In 1947 the Justice Department filed suit against Henry Morgan (a former Morgan partner) and sixteen other investment banking firms. “The charges in the suit — officially known as the United States vs. Henry S. Morgan, et al. — were complex and the case took several years to develop as a result.” (Geisst 1997-page 269).

Essentially, according to Geisst, the case involved the Justice Department’s belief that 17 investment banking firms over a forty year period colluded to eliminate competition and monopolize the cream of the business of investment banking.

It was not until six years later, in October 1953 that Judge Medina dismissed all charges with the following statement; “I have come to the settled conviction and accordingly find that no such combination, conspiracy and agreement as it is alleged in the complaint, nor any part thereof, was ever made, entered into, conceived, constructed, continued or participated in by these defendants, or any of them.” (Medina 1954).

Wall Street and Henry Morgan had been cleared of all charges and now could set about with the business of making money. At about this time the Republicans returned to power and pro-business policies reigned once more. The country was poised for the biggest boom in its history and so was Wall Street.

One event that took place during the 1950’s would lead to a change that would affect not only JP Morgan’s investment banking company, but would also change the way that such companies were managed, controlled and owned.

“Woodcock, Hess and Company became the first NYSE member to incorporate in 1953, starting a trend that would quickly accelerate.” (Geisst 1997-page 281).

Incorporating brought the benefits of additional, needed capital and the limited liability found in such a strategy. It also proved to be the end of a glorious era in regards to fiery individual owners who could manipulate markets for huge personal financial gains. Gone were the days when JP could ‘sell short’ stock in a railroad company in order to take over control. Gone also were the days that planting stories in the local newspaper would allow for a stock price to be manipulated either up or down, depending on the desires of an individual tycoon.

J.P. Morgan & Company also branched out into real estate and by the end of the century was claiming a number one ranking in managing Real Estate Investment Trusts (REIT). At that time J.P. Morgan was managing over $14.5 billion of tax exempt assets which would “place it atop Pensions & Investments ranking of the largest pension fund real estate money managers” (Williams, 1997, pg. 79).

Some experts were wary of the continued merging of the investment bankers and commercial banks, and the transformation of the client base.

Many of the biggest real estate investors were no longer individuals but were the very Wall Street firms, opportunity funds, pension funds, endowments and foundations that owned the real estate to begin with. One expert wrote “there was a day when being smart and having a good structure meant the difference between winning a piece of business and not, and we used to be interested in earning fees, not committing capital. These days that really isn’t and option” (Johnson, 1997, pg. 90).

Another area where both commercial and investment banks was delving into was the merger and acquisition arena. Billions of dollars in fees for services were to be gained by the enterprising and aggressive firms. In a 1996 issue of Fortune magazine, the two highest fee earning companies for 1995 both had Morgan in their titles. “American’s hottest export to Europe these days may be investment bankers. Led by the Morgans — Morgan Stanley and J.P. Morgan — mergers and acquisitions shattered all previous records last year, posting a mountainous $219 billion worth of deals, up 45% from $138 billion in 1994” (Evans, 1996, pg. 38). The money and profitability from the various areas of financial services were enticing to a number of companies, and the lines of demarcation that had been drawn 66 years earlier by the Glass-Steagall act were becoming more and more blurred.

That blurring was to set the stage for President Clinton to do away with the Glass-Steagall Act. He did so in 1999 and the impact was felt immediately.

Financial institutions such as Morgan, having been through the fires of turbulence and the travails of providing financial services to the wealthy, as well as to those not quite as wealthy but willing to invest anyway, are a necessary enterprise and is likely that they will never disband. With the restrictive Glass-Steagall Act now history, companies such as J.P. Morgan would either swallow up or be swallowed by other bigger fish. J.P. Morgan was one of several to be purchased. Morgan was bought by Chase for the hefty sum of $30 billion. Now the company would be known as J.P. Morgan Chase.

From the Morgan men was born the foundation of not only great companies that long outlived their founders, but also the foundation of a system that today is the envy of the world, providing direct livelihoods for thousands of employees and benefiting millions of clients all over the world.

That such individuals as the Morgans, et al., were able to withstand the challenges of men and time and emerge from those challenges, were probably what made the companies they founded even stronger in the long run. Would there now be a JP Morgan in any form if their founders had been any less a men than what they were. The evidence shows otherwise.

Stories and myths abound concerning these men’s feats, characters, insecurities, strengths and idiosyncrancies, and in spite of these the men still survived and grew stronger, leaving behind them legacies that are now billion dollar conglomerates that their founders would be proud of. It hardly could have been any different.

Today the entity formed by the first Morgan to land on American shores lives on, bigger and bolder than ever. What affects firms today, their longevity and their profitability is more likely to be built on customer advocacy rather than favors done by the owner to individuals under his dispensation.

Written for a banking magazine, a recent article states; “Consumers of financial services are more mistrustful, insecure and hands-on than everbut the report also found that most financial service firms have not changed to respond to these factors, so customer satisfaction has plummeted.” (The Need 2004-page 13). The company currently has over 168,000 employees and a market cap of over $152 billion. The House of Morgan is no longer run by a Morgan, and at JP Morgan Chase there is nary a Morgan to be found. The legacy lives on however, but the emphasis has changed from amassing personal fortunes, to ensuring that the customers are taken care of.

Now financial service firms are more likely to worry about internet theft of their customers identities than gaining control of another business entity. There are new and more pressing problems to consider.

“When a batch of credit card numbers goes missing or a hacker invades a credit bureau potential victims will soon be able to count on getting help faster. Congress will pass an ID theft bill this year that sets a national standard for handling security breaches at financial service firms and elsewhere.” (New 2005 page4).

Answering these and other problems will more than likely keep the customer, if not happy, at least satisfied, and it will be that satisfaction that will lead financial firms to the pinnacle for which they are striving.

Will any one firm be so dominant ever again? Will there be one firm that rules the Wall Street roost? Are there any individuals lurking home of stock and bond market transactions that will step forward and lead the way in such iron-fisted manners as those used by the early Morgans? More than likely not. Now the firms that bear their name will be more likely to throw a Christmas dinner for every client than sell a stock short, or charge exorbitant commissions on government bond issues.

Evidence shows that, like everything else in life, things change, sometimes for the better and sometimes for the worse. The Morgan men and the employess of the Morgan House were able to set an example, in some cases an example for how to do things right, and in other cases an example for how to do things not so right. Whether financial firms follow those examples or not will certainly be a decision that will either spell financial ruin, or financial success.

“J.P. Morgan dominated that other great creator of wealth in the city, Wall Street. From his perch at Drexel Morgan & Co., and then later at J.P. Morgan & Co., he became America’s virtual central banker” (Malanga, 1999, pg. 20)

References

Battle of the bulge bracket; (1998) Euromoney, No. 354, pp. 26-29

Chasing J.P. Morgan’s assets and prestige; (2000) Fortune, Vol. 142, No. 7, pg. 48

Chernow, Ron, (1990) An American Banking Dynasty and House of Morgan: the Rise of Modern Finance, New York: Simon & Schuster

Evans, R.; (1996) Takeover fever rages in Europe, Fortune, Vol. 133, pg. 38

Geisst, Charles R., (1997) Wall Street: a History, New York: Oxford University Press

Geisst, Charles R., (2000) 100 Years of Wall Street, New York: McGraw-Hill

Horn, M.; (2003) JP Morgan and Company, the House of Morgan and Europe, 1933-1939, Contemporary European History, pp. 519 — 538

Johnson, B.; (1997) Changing roles, competition heat up U.S. capital markets, National Real Estate Investor, Vol. 39, pp. 90 — 92

Lawrence, Joseph S. (1929) Wall Street and Washington, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press

Malanga, S.; (1999) Titans who shaped the city: Astor, Morgan, Rockefeller legacies evident even in today’s economy, Crain’s New York Business, Vol. 15, No. 51, pp. 20 — 26

Medina, Harold R. (1934) Corrected Opinion of Harold R. Medina, United States Circuit Judge, in United States of America v Henry S. Morgan, Harold Stanley et al., February 4, 1954

New ID Theft Rules Coming, (2005) Kiplinger Forecasts, Issue 1 Vol 7, pg. 4

Nocera, J.; (1998) Abby Cohen’s awkward situation, Fortune, Vol. 138, No. 5, pp. 29 — 30

Page Wise, Inc., (2004) Largest Banks in the World Chase Manhattan Corp., http://www.trivia-library.com/b/largest-banks-in-the-world-chase-manhattan-corporation-part-1.htm, accessed May 4, 2009

The History of J.P. Morgan Chase and Company: 200 years of leadership in banking; (2008), accessed May 4, 2009, at: http://www.jpmorganchase.com/cm/BlobServer?blobtable=Document&blobcol=urlblob&blobkey=name&blobheader=application/pdf&blobnocache=true&blobwhere=jpmc/about/history/shorthistory.pdf, pp. 1 — 24

The Need for ‘Customer Advocacy’ (2004) Bank Marketing International Vol 166-page 13

Williams, T.; (1997) J.P. Morgan leads real estate pack, Pensions & Investments, Vol. 25, pg. 79

Additional Quotes and Citations (if you need them).

Right now, no big bank seems to be struggling more than Morgan, which almost two decades ago embarked on a bold strategy to transform itself from a staid commercial bank into an investment bank. Morgan’s overarching problem is with profits. While most financial institutions are more profitable today than they’ve been in years, Morgan has been lagging. Return on equity — 13.4% last year — is below the 17.1% that a top bank like Citicorp earned and nowhere near the 26.8% that one of the big “bulge bracket” investment banks, Merrill Lynch, posted.

J.P. Morgan Still Can’t Make It on Wall Street

SOURCE:

Fortune v137 no7 p64-8+ April 13 ’98

J.P. MORGAN LEADS REAL ESTATE PACK

SOURCE:

Pensions & Investments v25 p79 November 10 ’97

Copyright Crain Communications Inc.

NEW YORK — J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. is claiming the top spot among pension real estate money managers with its intent to buy O’Connor Realty Advisors Inc. For an undisclosed sum.

By its calculation, J.P. Morgan will have more than $14.5 billion of tax-exempt assets under management when the purchase of O’Connor is complete, placing it atop Pensions & Investments’ ranking of the largest pension fund real estate money managers, as of June 30.

On November 12, 1999, with the stroke of a pen, President Clinton brought the U.S. banking laws into modernity. U.S. financial markets reacted favourably with commercial bank, insurance company and investment bank stock rising upon the news that the Glass Steagall provisions were repealed. While much of the news has centred on making U.S. financial institutions more competitive, President Clinton’s actions also created significant opportunities for international financial institutions.

Under the prior law, if an international financial institution wanted to engage in commercial banking in the U.S., it could only engage in a limited amount of investment or merchant banking and generally could not engage in insurance underwriting in the U.S. At all. Similarly, the Federal Reserve would review the worldwide operations of the international bank to determine whether it could engage in commercial banking at all in the U.S. This type of review led such financial institutions as ING and Fortis to relinquish their banking licences in the U.S.

Stephen Finch, George Macdonald and Jerome Walker

Replacing the Depression’s final legacy

SOURCE:

International Financial Law Review 19 no2 9-12 F. 2000

WORE DOWN THE WALLS

With little fanfare — perhaps partly unintentional and partly by instinct — financial planning over the past 30 years wore down the Depression-era walls that divided financial services industries. The stockbroker, insurance agent, money manager, and yes, even the banker, all combined into one person over this new generation. What the reform law known as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act did was bring uneasy company to this private party of some 50,000 or so accredited financial planners.

The new financial supermarkets are already a fact of life, and the recent changes to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 will only facilitate even more mergers, particularly on the insurance side. Part of this financial services modernization may even include acquisitions of the larger financial planning firms that started the whole thing in the first place.

Glass-Steagall Stealth Reform

SOURCE:

Journal of Financial Planning 13 no2 26 F. 2000

Some deals are done overnight; others take months. Then there is Glass-Steagall reform.

After two decades of lobbying and millions of dollars of campaign contributions, the Depression-era walls separating commercial and investment banking finally came down last year. It took a compromise over Community Reinvestment Act rules between the House of Representatives and the White House and an understanding between the Federal Reserve Board and the U.S. Treasury over regulatory turf. Banks and brokers had long since put aside their biggest differences by the time President Clinton signed the legislation on November 12.

A deal you could (finally) bank on: Financial services reform overturns Glass-Steagall.

SOURCE:

Institutional Investor (Americas edition) 34 no1 83-4 Ja 2000

The other thing that I’ll touch on is the transformation of the client base. These days not only has the client transitioned to the obvious REIT form, but in addition the biggest clients are the Street firms, the opportunity funds, those people raising money from pension funds, endowments and foundations. These are actually the biggest clients of Chase these days.

There was a day when being smart and having a good structure meant the difference between winning a piece of business and not, and we used to be interested in earning fees, not committing capital. These days that really isn’t an option. It is absolutely incumbent on any player in the market to be prepared with the balance sheet to commit capital, and everybody’s doing it.

Changing roles, competition heat up U.S. capital markets

SOURCE:

National Real Estate Investor v39 p90-2 Ap ’97


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