An atom is the smallest subdivision of matter. An atom consists of three types of particles. The nucleus, or center, of an atom contains neutral particles, called neutrons, and positively charged particles, called protons. Around the nucleus is a thinly populated region that contains electrons, particles with a negative electrical charge. You can picture an atom as a miniature solar system. The sun represents the protons and neutrons. Electrons orbit the nucleus much like planets orbit the sun (except that planets remain in the same plane). In an atom, the number of protons and the number of electrons are equal; therefore, the atom is neutral or has no electrical charge. If an atom gains or loses electrons, the charge of the atom becomes negative or positive, respectively. Charged atoms are called ions. If you have ever shuffled your feet on a carpet and then touched a door knob, you are familiar with an electrical charge. An element is a substance which cannot decompose into other substances by ordinary chemical means. One atom of an element will have all the characteristics of that element. Although you may not realize it, you are already familiar with several elements. For example, the element carbon is in diamonds, used for jewelry, and in graphite, used in pencil lead. We also use the elements gold and silver for jewelry. We need the element oxygen in the air we breathe. We worry about the carbon dioxide emitted by our cars. Carbon dioxide is a compound, or a combination of two or more elements. In the case of carbon dioxide, two atoms of oxygen combine with one atom of carbon. Another common compound, table salt, is made of the elements sodium and chlorine.
Table 1. Average Composition of the Crust
Eight elements combine to make most minerals and rocks found in the Earth\’s crust. The elements are oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The letters in the parentheses are abbreviations. You may already be somewhat familiar with some forms of these elements. Silicon combines with two atoms of oxygen (in the nomenclature of chemist, SiO2,or silica) to make the mineral quartz, which is common on many mainland beaches. Silica is also used for window glass. Aluminum is used for soda cans. Iron is used for the frame of automobiles and reacts with oxygen in the air to produce rust. Magnesium is used in flares. Calcium is a major component in our teeth and bones. Sodium is in table salt. Potassium is used in fertilizer. Titanium is combined with other metals to produce alloys, which are stronger metals.
A mineral, by definition, must satisfy five conditions:
It must be a solid element or compound.
It must have a definite composition.
It must have a regular internal crystal structure.
This definition excludes the thousands of compounds invented by humans in laboratories because these compounds are not naturally occurring. Compounds that are found in only plants or animals are also excluded. Liquids are excluded because they are not crystalline, their atoms are free to move. Minerals can be a single element, like diamond, which is made of carbon of compounds of two or more elements, like quartz, which contains one silicon and two oxygen atoms. Definite composition indicates that a chemical analysis of a given mineral will always produce the same ratio of elements. For example, quartz will always have one silicon for every two oxygen atoms. Therefore, minerals can be expressed by chemical formulas, such as SiO2 for quartz.
Common ions in minerals. Charges and relative sizes are shown. In some minerals, elements of similar size and charge substitute for each other. The amount of iron and magnesium in olivine varies because these elements can substitute for each other in the structure of the mineral. The formula for olivine, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, indicates that for every two magnesium and/or iron atoms, there are one silicon atom and four oxygen atoms. Substitution of sodium for calcium occurs in the mineral plagioclase.
Regular internal crystalline structure indicates that the atoms are arranged in a regular repeating pattern. This diagram shows the structure of the mineral halite. Atoms of chlorine and sodium are arranged in a three dimensional repeating pattern.
Another basic arrangement, the silica tetrahedron, consists of one silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron. The silica tetrahedron is a basic building unit for a major group of minerals called the silicates. This diagram shows four representations of the silica tetrahedron. A. Oxygen is represented by the white spheres and silicon by the smaller red sphere. B. An expanded view with rods representing bonds between the atoms. C. Diagrammatic representation of the tetrahedron, with four points representing the locations of oxygen atoms. D. Diagrammatic representation of the tetrahedron looking down from above.
By sharing adjacent oxygen atoms, the tetrahedron can form chains, sheets, and three-dimensional frameworks. A. The structure of olivine is based on isolated silica tetrahedra. B. The pyroxene minerals are made of a single chain of tetrahedra. C. The amphibole minerals are made of a double chain of tetrahedra. D. Micas, like biotite, are sheets of tetrahedra. E. Framework silicates, like plagioclase and quartz, are three-dimensional networks of silica tetrahedra.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!