1962 Memo Recommending Presidential Action
To the Chair, Robert Kennedy
The United States is at present faced with the threat of nuclear attack by the Soviet Union, which has installed missiles on the nation-island of Cuba, a Communist country. Cuba, being on friendly terms with the Soviet Union following the Bay of Pigs incident, entered into agreements of partnership for certain economic exchanges in support in Cuba’s declining economy (Powaski, Ronald, 1998, p. 132). The relationship between the two countries has advanced, and Cuba, which did not previously declare itself to be a Communist country, has, since establishing a relationship and economic partnership with the Soviet Union, now declares itself a Communist country (the Washington Times, 2005, p. A21). As such, Cuba acts in synergy with the Soviet Union, and, now, October 16, 1962, Cuba is facilitating the Soviet Union’s strategy for world domination through its nuclear strength by allowing the Soviet Union to install long-range missile offensive capability on the island of Cuba (Kennedy, Robert F., 1969, p. 13).
The capability of the long-range offensive missile being installed on the island of Cuba was at first determined to be about a thousand miles; but has been updated by American intelligence to support an ability of a greater distance, posing a threat to every major American city, except Seattle (Self, David, 2000, motion picture). This is a threat that cannot be tolerated by the United States, or the western hemisphere countries (Self, David, 2000, motion picture). The installation of Soviet missile capability on the island of Cuba is an offensive, not defensive strategy, and is, therefore, perceived to be the Soviet Union’s and Cuba’s joint intent of hostility through force towards the United States and other nations of the Americas and Canada.
The Soviet Union has maintained a position of denial, stating through its ambassador, Dobrynin, that the Soviet Chairman Nakita S. Khruschev offered assurances to the Kennedy administration that there were not, and would not be, Soviet missiles installed on the island of Cuba (Kennedy, Robert F., 1969, p. 25). These assurances, in light of U-2 photography of the missiles on the island of Cuba, prove the assurances made by the Soviet Chairman Khruschev to be false and deliberately misleading. The deception, and that it is an ongoing deception, about a situation that the Chairman adamantly denies, gives rise to the problem of whether or not the Soviet Chairman is himself being deceived by members of the higher echelons within the Soviet government (Self, David, 2000, motion-picture). This requires the United States to maintain, for now, an air of secrecy as to the events and information in case a greater plot is unfolding on the world political stage (Self, David, 2000, motion-picture). However, the urgency and expediency with which the United States must act to address the issue cannot be emphasized enough, since U-2 photography has indicated that the original number of missiles reported has, since October 16, 1962, increased in number and is clearly indicative of a Soviet buildup of missiles which have as their main target the United States of America (Self, David, 2000, motion-picture).
The Options for Consideration
The first option for consideration is negotiation with the governments of the Soviet Union and Cuba. The United States could offer to dismantle and remove its own missile capabilities in Turkey, and to abandon its American Marine base at Guantanamo Bay, on the island of Cuba (Self, David, 2000, motion picture). However, the recommendation is not to abandon the base at Guantanamo Bay, because it is essential to the security of the United States. The missiles in Turkey are outdated, and the United States has been faced with the burden of dismantling those missiles for some years now (Self, David, 2000, motion picture). The problem is that we leave an ally and a strategic U.S. military base of operations in Turkey, feeling vulnerable as a result of dismantling the missiles without replacing them (Self, David, 2000, motion picture). This option would require a caveat, because the American public would take issue with surrendering superiority that is represented by our presence and military strength in Turkey, to the Soviets in what would be perceived as an arm twist concession (Self, David, 2000, motion picture).
In negotiating with the Soviet Union and Cuba, the United States will be forced to reconsider its own nuclear armament policies, and to make concessions in areas of our own policy where we had previously taken a firm stance in opposition to the Soviet Union and Cuba. From the perspective of foreign relations, this is not necessarily a negative action; from a political perspective on the home front it could spell public opposition and reaction.
Negotiations would give the United States an opportunity to formalize relations with Cuba, and to begin a new dialogue acknowledging the Castro regime. While the United States has, by way of its own action of an economic embargo and by our participation in the Bay of Pigs, alienated the Castro government; this is a position that should be reconsidered and it is the recommendation here to work to establish a new relationship with Cuba and its leadership. At present, Cuba is susceptible to the influence of the Soviet Union, even embracing Communism as its own political philosophy (Powaski, Ronald, 1998, p. 132). The United States has an opportunity here to change the direction of its relationship with Cuba and the Cuban government. This is a recommendation that could only serve the United States well, since it is the position of this Security Council that Cuba would be susceptible to the influences of whatever country supports the dictatorship of Fidel Castro. This council posits the belief that Fidel Castro is first, and foremost, a dictator, and that his direction is one of sustaining himself in that regard and that his political philosophies are adapted to his own role as a dictator. It would be in the best interest of the United States from a long-term perspective to normalize relations with the Castro government, to end its economic sanctions against Cuba, and to engage in an aggressive economic, political and social exchange with the Castro government in order that Castro adopts a quasi-capitalist philosophy that is more compatible with the western hemisphere, and less that of the Soviet Union.
There also is the matter of Cuba’s natural resources, which could be an economic quid pro quo for the United States at this point in time. The island is rich in natural resources such as nickel, and it known that Cuba has within its territorial waters oil resources that could be explored and developed by U.S. companies in the interest of the United States (the Washington Times, 2005, p. A21). Should the United States fail to normalize relations with Cuba and once the question of Soviet dismantling of missiles is resolved; it can be expected that anti-American world governments will seek to exploit Cuba’s natural resources and benefit from that exploitation (the Washington Times, 2005, p. A21).
A second option that must be presented, and recommended by the Joint Chiefs of Staff; is an air strike (Self, David, 2000, motion picture). An air strike would successfully eliminate the threat that is presently aimed at the United States by the presence of nuclear missiles on the island of Cuba (Self, David, 2000, motion picture). In order to achieve the maximum success by way of an air strike, the element of surprise is essential, as is the need to execute the strike prior to the readiness of the Soviet missiles (Self, David, 2000, motion picture). The air strike must be followed with a full-scale invasion of the island with a goal of ousting the Castro regime (Self, David, 2000, motion picture).
A third option is a blockade, which, because it is an act of aggression and considered an act of war, will be referred to as a “quarantine (Self, David, 2000, motion picture).” A blockade of Soviet Union vessels carrying the equipment and supplies needed to ready the Soviet missiles staged on the island of Cuba, would be an aggressive warning to the Soviet Union that the United States will not tolerate a Soviet missile base in the western hemisphere, since that presence is a direct threat to the United States (Self, David, 2000, motion picture). A blockade (quarantine) would force the Soviet Union, who has maintained its denial of both its intent to establish a missile base on the island of Cuba, and that such missiles are actually there; to acknowledge its deception (Self, David, 2000, motion picture). The admittance should be made in the presence of the world representatives in the United Nations (Self, David, 2000, motion picture).
In summary, the recommendation of this council is that the president use a combination of the alternatives presented in this document; (1) negotiation, to re-establish stability on the world front, which is at risk at the present time (Kennedy, R.F., 1969). Negotiation could serve the United States well on the long-term political and economic fronts, and give the United States the opportunity to be a greater influence on the Castro regime than those countries which would seek to use the dictatorship against the United States. (2) Blockade (Kennedy, R.F., 1969), which would prevent the Soviet Union from carrying out its mission of establishing a Soviet missile base on the island of Cuba, and will send the message to the Soviet Union that they are attempting to cross the line where the United States can maintain a hands-off policy (Powell, Samantha, 2003, pp. 6-7). and, should the first two fail, (3) an air strike and invasion of the island wherein the United States will seize control of the island and work towards making it either a U.S. territory, or we will work to install a democratic government (Kennedy, R.F., 1969).
These are the recommendations of this council.
Donald, R.(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.
Kennedy, R.F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.
Powaski, R.E. (1998). The Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78888344
Power, S., (2003) a Problem From Hell: America in the Age of Genocide, Harper Collins, New York, New York.
The Future of Cuban – American Relations;. U.S. At Arm’s Length, but Others Reach Out. (2005, April 26). The Washington Times, p. A21. Retrieved September 24, 2 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009369867
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!